Pistachio, Pomegranate and Olive Byproducts Added to Sheep Rations Change the Biofunctional Properties of Milk through the Milk Amino Acid Profile

Mücahit Kahraman1,*, Sabri Yurtseven2, Ebru Sakar3, Aydın Daş1, Hamza Yalçın4, Gülşah Güngören1, Mustafa Ünal Boyraz5, İsmail Koyuncu6
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63300, Turkey
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63300, Turkey
3Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63300, Turkey
4Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Agriculture, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63300, Turkey
5Histology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63300, Turkey
6Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63300, Turkey
*Corresponding author: Mücahit Kahraman, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63300, Turkey, Tel: +90-414-318-3918, Fax: +90-414-318-3922, E-mail:

© Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: May 05, 2022 ; Revised: Nov 08, 2022 ; Accepted: Nov 09, 2022

Published Online: Jan 01, 2023


This study was carried out to determine the effects of adding pistachio shell (PIS), pomegranate hull (POM), and olive pulp (OP) to the diet on milk amino acid and fatty acid parameters in Awassi sheep. In the study, 40 head of Awassi sheep, which gave birth at least twice, were used as animal material. Sheep were fed a control diet without added byproducts (CON), rations containing PIS, POM, and OP. Milk amino acid profile was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, milk fatty acid gas chromatography-flame ionization detection device. There was a dramatic reduction in alanine, citrulline, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, ornithine and alphaaminoadipic acid in the research groups. In the PIS group, argininosuccinic acid, gammaminobutyric acid, beta-alanine and sarcosine; In the POM group, asparagine, gammaminobutyric acid, beta-alanine, and taurine; In the OP group, a significant positive increase was found in terms of alanine, histidine, gammaminobutyric acid, and taurine amino acids. The applications in the study did not have a statistically significant effect on the ratio of short, medium and long chain fatty acids in milk (p>0.05). In the presented study, it was determined that PIS, POM, and OP, which were added to the sheep rations at a rate of 5%, caused significant changes in the milk amino acid profiles. In this change in milk amino acid profiles, the benefit-harm relationship should be considered.

Keywords: food byproduct; milk amino acid; milk fatty acid; sheep


Sheep milk is an important source of food for human consumption. The high demand for milk due to the increasing human population raises various concerns regarding food quality and safety (Sun et al., 2015). Feed is the most important and variable element in milk production (Wang et al., 2020), and its quality has significant effects on animal health, production performance, and milk quality (Qi et al., 2018). Therefore, rations need to be adjusted via systemic manipulations (Angeles-Hernandez et al., 2020). It is necessary to reduce food production costs to promote global food safety and environmental nutrition sustainability, which may have beneficial effects on global food production (FAO, 2018). The problem of meeting food demands due to the increasing population results in malnutrition and a lack of micronutrients in the population (Georganas et al., 2020). Losses of nutrients during the production, postharvest, and processing stages of the food supply chain are known as “food waste” (Gustavsson et al., 2011). Food byproducts have good nutritional value and provide high-quality nutrients for human consumption (Lipinski et al., 2013; Westendorf, 2000). Pistachio shell (PIS), pomegranate hull (POM), and olive pulp (OP) are unique among food byproducts due to the bioactive substances they contain. Food byproduct can replace some of the feed sources used in animal nutrition (Ominski et al., 2021). Therefore, the utilization of these valuable plant parts, which are treated as agricultural byproduct, as feed contributes to the development of biofunctioning of sheep milk in addition to economic contribution (Georganas et al., 2020).

Pistachio, pomegranate and olive are widely produced in the Southeast region of Turkey (TÜİK, 2020). Therefore, there are many production facilities where these fruits are processed and a high amount of byproducts is produced. These fruit byproducts constitute important environmental problems for the production enterprises (Sagar et al., 2018). On the other hand, due to reasons such as climate change and environmental pollution, there is a low yield in grain harvests, which are widely used in animal husbandry (Nardone et al., 2010). This situation causes significant problems in accessing roughage resources in countries. For this reason, it is necessary to investigate alternative feed sources for animal feeding and to reveal their effects on animal products.

To date, most studies have focused on management strategies for improving dairy nutrition. Although these studies were employed to improve milk production and quality, the relevant physiological and metabolic mechanisms remain unclear. Sheep milk contains high contents of proteins, fats, and lactose. The composition of sheep milk differs from that of other dairy animal milk (Bittante et al., 2022; Ospanov and Toxanbayeva, 2020). Low molecular weight amino acids in milk and dairy products are the end products of gene expression in various metabolic pathways affecting the mechanism of lactation (Sun et al., 2020). It is useful to measure the levels of these compounds for determining the metabolic properties of milk (Murgia et al., 2016; Sundekilde et al., 2014; Wu et al., 2021). However, limited studies have been conducted on changes in milk composition in different ration applications. Chromatographic methods based on mass spectrometry have been applied to various studies on the metabolite profiles of different milk types (Caboni et al., 2016; Mung and Li, 2018). Most studies have focused on cow milk, and there are few studies on sheep milk and its products. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of different rations and food byproducts, which are rich in terms of bioactive compounds (PIS, POM, and OP), on the bioactive composition of sheep milk through milk amino acid and fatty acid parameters.

Materials and Methods

The research was conducted in the Farm Animals Unit of Harran University’s Animal Experiments Application and Research Center. The necessary permissions for the applications to be conducted related to the study were granted by Harran University’s Animal Experiments Local Ethics Committee (2022-001/10). In the study, 40 Awassi sheep (body weight: 64.04±1.04 kg; days in milk: 75.25±1.06; daily milk yield: 1,191.45±48.02 g) were used as animal material. PIS, POM, and OP were dried and added to the ration in powder form. During the study, the sheep in the groups were fed with four different rations. The rations given to sheep during the study included (1) a control diet without additional byproducts (CON), (2) PIS, (3) POM, and (4) OP. The rate of byproducts to be included in the ration was 5 percent. The contents and nutritional compositions of the rations used in the study are shown in Table 1. The raw nutrient contents of POM, PIS, and OP used in this study are presented in Table 2, amino acids, and fatty acids contents are presented in Table 3 and Table 4, respectively.

Table 1. Contents and nutrient compositions of the rations used in the research
Items Feed [(g/kg) DM]
Diets (%)
 Concentrated feed 62.00 61.00 63.00 66.00
 Alfalfa 33.00 34.00 32.00 29.00
 Wheat straw 5.00 - - -
 Pomegranate hull - 5.00 - -
 Pistachio shell - - 5.00 -
 Olive pulp - - - 5.00
 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Analyze values (%)
 DM 94.64 94.60 94.12 92.19
 CP 15.47 15.59 15.74 15.53
 CS 22.57 22.14 22.93 21.00
 CO 5.60 5.68 5.93 5.87
ME (Mcal/kg DM) 2,253.48 2,284.41 2,280.35 2,260.01

Concentrated feed: CP, 18%; CS, 10%; ash, 10%; CO, 3%; phosphorus, 0.5%; sodium, 0.2%; vitamine A (IU/Kg), 5,000; vitamine D3 (IU/Kg), 700; vitamine E (IU/Kg), 30 mg.

DM, dry matter; CON, control; POM, pomegranate hull; PIS, pistachio shell; OP, olive pulp; CP, crude protein; CS, crude cellulose; CO, crude oil; ME, metabolic energy.

Download Excel Table
Table 2. Raw nutrient contents of pistachio shell, pomegranate hull, and olive pulp used in the research
Items Pomegranate hull Pistachio shell Olive pulp
DM (%) 81.27 76.17 31.07
CA (%) 5.60 7.01 5.10
CP (%) 3.60 6.46 6.84
CO (%) 9.78 8.78 5.93
ADF (%) 47.80 34.10 51.40
NDF (%) 56.35 36.90 69.10
ME (Mcal/kg DM) 2,100 2,000 2,150
N (mg/100 g) 0.58 1.67 1.09
C (mg/100 g) 42.45 44.37 46.03
H (mg/100 g) 5.25 5.65 6.58
S (mg/100 g) 0.00 0.00 4.86

DM, dry matter; CA, crude ash; CP, crude protein; CO, crude oil; ADF, acid detergent fiber; NDF, neutral detergent fiber; ME, metabolic energy, N, nitrogen; C, carbon; H, hydrogen; S, sulfur.

Download Excel Table
Table 3. Amino acid contents of pistachio shell, pomegranate hull, and olive pulp used in the research
Amino acids (μmol/L) Pistachio shell Pomegranate hull Olive pulp
Alanine 576.63 493.77 70.47
Arginine 112.18 21.99 10.64
Asparagine 40.28 374.19 0.79
Aspartic acid 340.80 81.90 34.50
Citrulline 24.60 0.86 2.64
Glutamine 3.76 759.76 43.76
Glutamic acid 747.79 56.17 78.68
Glycine 466.41 32.21 26.31
Histidine 56.91 16.48 1.84
Leucine 252.33 10.67 46.54
Isoleucine 294.06 11.88 35.77
Alloisoleucine 1.25 0.10 0.23
Lysine 73.27 14.05 9.29
Methionine 23.56 0.22 5.48
Ornithine 2.91 2.96 1.23
Phenylalanine 108.65 7.83 15.59
Proline 235.91 44.75 24.07
Serine 214.73 132.44 32.15
Threonine 357.96 40.64 36.91
Tryptophan 28.12 6.79 4.60
Tyrosine 39.61 7.70 10.09
Valine 435.88 42.11 48.11
Alphaaminoadipic acid 4.24 0.10 0.05
Alphaaminopimelic acid 1.19 0.55 0.69
Argininosuccinic acid 0.66 0.12 0.20
Alphaaminobutyric acid 4.15 1.60 0.78
Betaaminoisobutyric acid 9.62 36.00 0.58
Gammaaminobutyric acid 22.79 44.34 9.11
Beta-Alanine 7.13 4.05 0.98
Sarcosine 40.76 37.73 5.46
Cystathionine 0.53 0.08 0.20
Thiaproline 0.08 0.12 0.03
Hydroxylysine 0.09 1.39 0.06
Hydroxyproline 76.78 3.16 14.72
Cystine 1.85 0.14 0.16
Histamine 0.02 0.03 0.01
5-OH-Tryptophan 0.17 5.16 0.03
Taurine 290.25 873.95 74.36
Download Excel Table
Table 4. Fatty acid contents of pistachio shell, pomegranate hull, and olive pulp used in the research
Fatty acids (g/100 g) Pistachio shell Pomegranate hull Olive pulp
Butyric acid 0.36 0.09 0.72
Caproic acid - 0.06 1.82
Eicosapentaenoic acid - 13.28 -
Cis-Linoleic acid 11.14 11.04 8.68
Cis-Oleic acid 38.57 32.78 53.07
Heneicosanoic acid - - 0.36
Heptadecanoic acid 0.36 0.14 -
Lauric acid - 0.25 5.93
Linolenic acid 0.23 0.85 -
Myristic acid 1.46 1.00 1.60
Nervonic acid - 3.24 -
Palmitic acid 40.71 33.07 24.33
Palmitoleic acid 0.58 0.20 0.58
Pentadecanoic acid 1.02 0.06 -
Stearic acid 4.25 3.80 2.58
Trans-Elaidic acid 0.44 - 0.35
Download Excel Table

Milk samples collected during the morning milking on the 45th day of the research were used to determine amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Pre–post dipping was performed before and after milk samples were collected to ensure milking hygiene. Samples were kept at −80°C until they were analyzed.

Milk samples were separated from proteins and other macromolecules by the 3 KDa Amicon filter method. The resulting filtrate was analyzed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the amino acids present in the sample were determined. The samples were prepared according to the commercial kit protocol. For this purpose, a 50-μL sample was transferred to a sample bottle, 700-μL reagent-1 was mixed with the internal standard mixture labeled with a 50-μL stable isotope, and the mixture was vortexed for 5 s. It was injected into the LC-MS/MS (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) system according to the device’s instructions (mass detector parameters; gas temperature: 150°C, gas flow: 10 L/min, nebulizer pressure: 40 psi, and capillary voltage: +2,000 V). The specified amino acid concentration was determined in μmol/L (Oz et al., 2022).

For fatty acid analysis, 5-mL hexane was added to 5-mL milk and vortexed for 5 min. The resulting mixture was centrifuged at 2,500×g for 15 min and kept in a dark environment at +4°C for 24 h. Then, the supernate was mixed with 2-mL 1 M KOH-methanol, and 5 mL of 14% boron trifluoride was added. The sample was methylated for 60 min at 100°C and then extracted using 10-mL hexane. Fatty acid methyl esters were read on the gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) device (GC-FID: Nexis GC 2030, Shimadzu; Colon: TR-882192 Capillary Column TR-CN100, Teknokroma, Barcelona, Spain). Helium was used as the carrier gas. The column temperature was initially at 50°C and was increased by 10°C/min to 190°C. It took 130 min for the fatty acid methyl esters to be read on the device. The temperature of the injector was 270°C, and the temperature of the detector was 300°C (Razzaghi et al., 2015).

The assumptions of equality and normality of variances in the data were made using the Levene and Shapiro–Wilk tests (p>0.05). Amino acid and fatty acid data in the groups were compared using a general linear model and the Tukey honestly significant difference multiple comparison test. Amino acid data obtained from LC-MS/MS analysis was uploaded on the metaboAnalyst 5.0 ( server. Principal component analysis (PCA) was first performed to detect the segregation and clustering of amino acids detected in the CON, PIS, POM, and OP groups. Then, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to maximize segregation and clustering. The variable importance in projection (VIP) scores of amino acids contributing to the discrimination of the groups was calculated. A hierarchical clustering heat map was created to visualize the differentiating amino acids in the CON, PIS, POM, and OP groups. The data were presented as X±SE (mean±SE). The statistical significance level was evaluated as p<0.05 for all tests.


The LC–MS/MS analysis of the sheep milk samples revealed the presence of 38 amino acids (Table 5). In the research groups, there were dramatic reductions in alanine, citrulline, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, ornithine, and alpha-aminoadipic acid. Significant increases in amino acids were detected in the following groups: argininosuccinic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, beta-alanine, and sarcosine in the PIS group; Asparagine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, beta-alanine, and taurine in the POM group; alanine, histidine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and taurine in the OP group. PCA and PLS-DA analyses to visualize the sample distribution determined in the groups are presented in Figs. 1A and B. PCA was performed to provide an overview of the difference in 38 amino acid profiles between groups that were fed different diets containing pistachio, pomegranate and olive byproducts. The findings of the analyses revealed that there was no clear separation and clustering among the groups. PLS-DA was performed to maximize the differences between the groups. Although it provided better segregation and aggregation compared to PCA, the groups did not differ significantly. The VIP graph of the amino acids distributed in the CON, PIS, POM, and OP groups is shown in Fig. 1C. Glutamic acid, leucine, and glycine (Fig. 1C) are the amino acids with the highest scores (Fig. 2A). Other amino acids that contributed to the discrimination in the groups are shown in Fig. 2. The applications of 5% PIS, POM, and OP in the study had no statistically significant effects on the short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acid concentrations of milk (Table 6; p>0.05).

Table 5. Milk amino acids determined in research groups
Amino acids (μmol/L) Diets F-value p-value
Alanine 60.93±7.41b 30.93±3.88b 30.25±3.60a 59.26±8.98a 7.10 0.001
Arginine 74.43±8.63a 39.13±4.77b 41.33±4.25b 56.02±5.99ab 7.02 0.001
Asparagine 6.32±1.15b 6.02±1.08b 12.52±2.30ab 13.38±2.06a 5.14 0.005
Aspartic acid 11.95±2.30a 7.09±1.75ab 4.64±0.67b 10.70±2.34ab 3.13 0.037
Citrulline 10.18±1.66a 3.49±0.48b 3.73±0.62b 6.12±1.21ab 7.88 0.000
Glutamine 11.26±1.40a 2.83±0.45b 4.22±0.50b 3.91±0.59b 21.27 0.000
Glutamic acid 150.07±18.85a 71.69±10.37b 76.65±11.02b 115.19±16.45ab 6.29 0.002
Glycine 72.43±9.71a 37.49±5.85b 32.40±1.84b 49.07±6.55ab 7.25 0.001
Histidine 17.83±3.25a 7.54±0.82b 7.76±1.15b 19.29±3.67a 6.14 0.002
Leucine 80.28±16.20a 46.37±8.75ab 39.10±5.80b 60.48±9.35ab 2.85 0.051
İsoleucine 53.22±9.74 31.09±6.61 35.79±6.97 49.95±9.06 1.71 0.182
Alloisoleucine 0.24±0.04 0.19±0.03 0.27±0.06 0.26±0.04 0.46 0.708
Lysine 156.73±22.39 114.73±24.72 159.54±29.04 154.98±24.32 0.70 0.553
Methionine 24.11±4.69 18.14±4.94 21.71±5.38 27.87±5.21 0.65 0.587
Ornithine 14.31±2.65a 5.91±0.80b 5.85±0.90b 4.93±0.75b 8.48 0.000
Phenylalanine 38.52±7.19 21.07±5.11 19.29±4.43 33.99±6.51 2.57 0.069
Proline 53.36±13.55 24.93±4.40 40.87±8.21 47.75±11.34 1.51 0.227
Serine 21.09±3.33 16.73±1.07 14.86±1.83 16.61±2.51 1.28 0.296
Threonine 19.06±3.56 15.95±1.51 23.02±5.21 20.89±3.56 0.65 0.586
Tryptophan 7.72±1.49 5.61±1.31 3.51±0.58 7.28±1.25 2.47 0.077
Tyrosine 35.53±6.54 22.82±4.33 21.90±3.26 29.75±4.79 1.71 0.181
Valine 121.01±19.87 115.40±15.71 86.71±7.61 10.604±10.19 1.12 0.353
Alphaaminoadipic acid 5.06±1.18a 2.59±1.02ab 2.38±0.32ab 1.13±0.16b 4.20 0.012
Alphaaminopimelic acid 0.62±0.03 0.70±0.02 0.58±0.07 0.69±0.02 1.55 0.217
Argininosuccinic acid 5.10±0.96b 9.35±1.40a 5.25±0.70b 3.58±0.25b 7.07 0.001
Alphaaminobutyric acid 0.87±0.18a 0.22±0.05b 0.45±0.11ab 0.45±0.09ab 5.09 0.005
Betaaminoisobutyric acid 2.70±0.61a 1.27±0.25ab 0.98±0.12b 1.69±0.37ab 3.74 0.019
Gammaaminobutyric acid 0.09±0.02b 0.20±0.05ab 0.38±0.10ab 0.22±0.03ab 3.48 0.025
Beta-Alanine 0.03±0.00b 1.79±0.34a 1.74±0.41a 0.02±0.00b 13.97 0.000
Sarcosine 0.48±0.05b 3.09±0.74a 0.42±0.08b 0.32±0.03b 12.71 0.000
Cystathionine 0.08±0.01a 0.04±0.01ab 0.03±0.00b 0.04±0.01ab 3.22 0.034
Thiaproline 0.01±0.00 0.01±0.00 0.02±0.01 0.02±0.01 1.03 0.387
Hydroxylysine 0.13±0.02a 0.36±0.09b 0.13±0.06b 0.08±0.01b 4.44 0.009
Hydroxyproline 2.67±0.32 3.27±0.53 2.90±0.57 4.45±0.97 1.49 0.233
Cystine 2.94±0.58a 1.75±0.12b 0.05±0.03c 0.49±0.10c 18.58 0.000
Histamine 0.01±0.00 0.01±0.00 0.01±0.00 0.01±0.00 0.11 0.948
5-OH-Tryptophan 0.25±0.07 0.09±0.02 0.07±0.02 0.15±0.04 2.72 0.059
Taurine 47.71±12.53ab 31.55±1.38b 80.68±17.29a 93.45±11.48a 5.56 0.003

a,b The difference between the averages shown with different letters in the same row is significant.

CON, control; PIS, pistachio shell; POM, pomegranate hull; OP, olive pulp; F, Fisher’s exact test value; p, statistical significance level.

Download Excel Table
Fig. 1. PCA (A), PLS-DA (B), and VIP score (C) graphs for CON, PIS, POM, and OP groups. CON, control; OP, olive pulp; PIS, pistachio shell; POM, pomegranate hull; PCA, principal component analysis; PLS-DA, partial least squares discriminant analysis; VIP, variable importance in projection.
Download Original Figure
Fig. 2. Hierarchical clustering heat map for CON, PIS, POM, and OP groups. CON, control; OP, olive pulp; PIS, pistachio shell; POM, pomegranate hull.
Download Original Figure
Table 6. Milk fatty acids determined in research groups
Fatty acids (g/100 g) Diets F-value p-value
Butyric acid 2.53±1.42 2.51±0.72 2.66±0.60 2.39±1.20 0.41 0.74
Capric acid 9.90±2.30 9.77±2.90 10.70±3.19 9.80±3.90 0.70 0.55
Caproic acid 2.43±0.71 2.47±0.67 2.63±0.80 2.33±0.62 1.09 0.37
Caprylic acid 2.57±0.75 2.52±0.82 2.76±1.02 2.48±0.71 0.80 0.50
Cis-Linoleic acid 1.43±0.48 1.83±0.48 1.70±1.22 1.89±1.32 1.64 0.21
Cis-Oleic acid 12.38±3.34 12.83±5.30 8.95±6.27 12.97±10.14 2.88 0.06
Heneicosanoic acid 0.15±0.05 0.31±0.34 0.39±0.93 0.51±0.80 1.96 0.15
Heptadecanoic acid 0.33±0.17 0.37±0.17 0.39±0.23 0.40±0.14 0.85 0.48
Lauric acid 6.07±2.44 5.82±2.41 6.43±1.87 6.24±3.66 0.34 0.79
Myristic acid 17.37±2.30 16.09±3.92 17.82±4.60 16.47±4.58 1.45 0.25
Myristoleic acid 0.43±0.35 0.40±0.23 0.36±0.45 0.41±0.09 0.35 0.78
Palmitic acid 37.25±7.31 37.78±5.31 38.75±10.19 36.38±4.93 0.67 0.57
Palmitoleic acid 1.53±0.73 1.64±0.79 1.28±1.18 1.65±0.69 1.37 0.28
Pentadecanoic acid 0.84±0.40 1.06±1.09 0.82±0.80 1.15±0.75 1.52 0.23
Stearic acid 3.83±1.53 3.63±2.12 3.54±3.18 3.93±1.32 0.24 0.86
Tridecanoic acid 0.20±0.11 0.18±0.15 0.19±0.20 0.18±0.10 0.20 0.89
Undecanoic acid 0.48±0.15 0.44±0.17 0.41±0.24 0.41±0.21 1.06 0.38
∑SFA 84.01±3.28ab 83.00±5.67ab 87.43±6.92a 82.66±10.21b 3.51 0.03
∑MUFA 14.55±3.33ab 15.11±5.41ab 10.75±6.14b 15.31±10.13a 3.67 0.03
∑PUFA 1.44±0.48 1.89±0.45 1.82±1.54 2.03±1.55 1.78 0.18
∑UFA 15.99±3.28ab 17.00±5.67ab 12.57±6.92b 17.34±10.21a 3.51 0.03

CON, control; PIS, pistachio shell; POM, pomegranate hull; OP, olive pulp; F, Fisher’s exact test value; p, statistical significance level; ∑SFA, total saturated fatty acids; ∑MUFA, total monounsaturated fatty acids; ∑PUFA, total poliunsaturated fatty acids; ∑UFA, total unsaturated fatty acids.

Download Excel Table


Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, play a vital role in various processes, such as the synthesis of proteins, hormones, and neurotransmitters in the human body (Khadka, 2021). Amino acids, like vitamins and minerals, aid in our overall health and well-being. They also perform several genetic functions, such as body functioning, growth, and health maintenance, by optimizing the concentration of micronutrients (Mariotti and Gardner, 2019). Amino acid supplementation has various benefits, including increasing the performance and the secretion of anabolic hormones, shifting energy use during exercise, preventing the negative effects of excessive exercise, and preventing mental fatigue (Molinero and Márquez, 2009). Due to these properties, increasing the levels of amino acids with biological function in foods for human consumption increases the nutritional value of sheep milk. In the current study, the amino acid profiles of sheep milk were determined and the effects of PIS, POM, and OP added to sheep rations on amino acids and fatty acid profiles of milk were compared.

Most of the biofunctionality of dairy products is attributed to peptides released during the gastrointestinal absorption process or the enzymatic degradation of milk proteins via fermentation (Abd El-Salam and El-Shibiny, 2013). In this study, high levels of arginine, glutamic acid, lysine, and valine were detected in sheep milk. Milk amino acid concentrations differ in other livestock species for milk production purposes (Caboni et al., 2019; Xu et al., 2020). This difference can be considered a marker to separate milk from different species (Murgia et al., 2016). Valine, one of the main branched amino acids identified in our study, plays a role in the metabolic pathways for the production of branched-chain fatty acids (Li et al., 2020a) and contributes to the flavor of dairy products (Chilliard et al., 2003). As a result of this property, valine can be effective in the aroma formation of sheep milk. Glutamic acid exerts multifunctional effects on intestinal health and energy metabolism (Smilowitz et al., 2013). De novo serine synthesis is critical for the development and function of the central nervous system. Serine, as a nonessential amino acid, has many metabolic functions during different stages of development, such as nucleotide synthesis, protein synthesis, amino acids, and neurotransmitter synthesis, and provides precursors for serine-derived lipids (Tabatabaie et al., 2010). Arginine plays an important role in transcriptional regulations, such as protein–DNA, protein–RNA, and protein–protein interactions (Li et al., 2020b). This study found a dramatic reduction in amino acids, such as alanine, citrulline, and glutamine, in the POM, PIS, and OP groups. Some of the amino acids required for milk protein synthesis are provided via diet (Wang et al., 2019). These amino acids should be in digestible and absorbable forms in the gastrointestinal tract. The ratio of amino acids, such as histidine and glutamine, affects the absorption of other amino acids and creates a restrictive effect in terms of protein yield (Bequette et al., 2000; Meijer et al., 1993). This may lead to different milk amino acid concentrations in research groups.

PISs, POMs, and OP are rich in phenolic compounds (Aliyari et al., 2020). Although phenolics do not have any direct effect on the rumen, they slow down the physical and microbial degradation of the consumed feed by creating a flexible covalent bond with hemicellulose and cellulose (Waghorn and McNabb, 2003). The different phenolic contents and amounts of the feed additives used in the research may change the digestive kinetics of the feeds used and increase the concentrations of the amino acids in the POM, PIS, and OP groups. Previous studies have reported that PISs are rich in asparagine, citrulline, ornithine, tyrosine, beta-alanine, and arginosuccinic acid amino acids (Koyuncu et al., 2018; Koyuncu et al., 2021). Among these amino acids, beta-alanine and arginosuccinic acids were found to be higher in milk from sheep fed with PISs than in milk from other groups. Beta-alanine combines with histidine to form a molecule within the cell called carnosine (Varanoske et al., 2019). Carnosine buffers the acidic environment created by intense exercise, allowing for better durability and performance (Shbib et al., 2021). Gamma-aminobutyric acid, which is detected in large quantities in the POM and OP groups, is a neurotransmitter that blocks the stimulation of nerve cells in the brain. It creates a calming and protective effect on the body and brain (Sharma and Bist, 2019). Free forms of amino acids can be utilized faster in intestinal absorption (Murgia et al., 2016). The differences in the amino acids among the research groups could be due to the differences in the amino acid content of the PIS, POM, and OP used as feed additives. The high concentrations of amino acids in milk, which are also found in high concentrations in the products used as feed additives, may contribute to the change in the biofunctional structure of milk. Most studies in which PIS, POM, and OP are used in animal nutrition focus on milk yield and milk quality. In these studies, it was emphasized that byproducts used as feed additives had a similar effect on milk yield and milk quality (Kahraman et al., 2022). The presented study gained importance in terms of revealing the effect of PIS, POM, and OP on milk amino acid profile.

The different dietary programs applied in the study did not affect the concentrations of short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids in milk. Our results are partially similar to the change in short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acid concentrations reported by Razzaghi et al. (2015) in a study using pistachio peel and tomato pulp in goats. It has been reported that tomato pulp and OP added to the ration of Awassi sheep raised in Syria caused similar results in terms of fatty acid change (Abbeddou et al., 2015). In studies where olive byproducts were added to sheep rations, it was stated that the olive tree leaves changed cis-9 and trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid values (Tsiplakou and Zervas, 2008). The increase in fatty acids with fewer than 16 carbon chains is either due to excess secretion of long-chain fatty acids from the blood or due to higher de novo synthesis of short-chain fatty acids in the mammary gland (Dorea and Armentano, 2017). Fatty acid profile changes in sheep milk are due to ration (Chiofalo et al., 2004) and genotypic (Payandeh et al., 2016) differences as well as ration and breed interactions (Tsiplakou and Zervas, 2008).

Agricultural byproduct and byproducts are rich in bioactive components that show antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and have several positive effects on health. Fruit and vegetable industry byproducts containing a high content of antioxidant components, such as carotenoids, tocopherols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid, are used as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries (Duda-Chodak and Tarko, 2007). Under normal conditions, biologically active compounds found in plants are not easily accessible and these natural compounds need to be subjected to an extraction process (Ribeiro et al., 2015). The high levels of some amino acids in sheep milk, which exist in food byproducts (PIS, POM, and OP) and are rich in terms of bioactive compounds, reveal the use of animals as converters in making these amino acids suitable for human consumption. The findings we obtained from the study increase the amount of amino acids with biological functions such as beta-alanine, argino succinic acid and gammaminobutyric acid, increasing the nutraceutical and therapeutic effect of sheep milk. However, significant reductions in amino acid concentrations of alanine, citrulline, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine were observed. Therefore, the benefit-harm relationship should be considered in this change in the milk amino acid profile. This study has shown promising results on the use of agricultural byproducts with biofunctional properties in animal feed and the transfer of these properties to animal products. In addition, the inclusion of PIS, POM, and OP in rations contributes to the potential health benefits as well as the reduction of food byproduct.


In the presented study; it was determined that PIS, POM, and OP added to sheep rations at a rate of 5% caused significant changes in milk amino acid profiles without affecting the milk fatty acid profile. It is recommended to continue in vivo and in vitro studies, in which food byproducts known to have health effects are mixed into the rations at different rates, in order to improve the bioactive properties of sheep milk.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest.


In this study, the materials obtained from the project supported by the Southeastern Anatolia Project Regional Development Administration of the Ministry of Industry and Technology of Turkey were used (Project No. 19323).

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: Kahraman M, Yurtseven S, Sakar E. Data curation: Kahraman M, Güngören G. Formal analysis: Boyraz MÜ. Methodology: Daş A, Koyuncu İ. Software: Yalçın H. Validation: Yurtseven S. Investigation: Kahraman M. Writing - original draft: Kahraman M. Writing - review & editing: Kahraman M, Yurtseven S, Sakar E, Daş A, Yalçın H, Güngören G, Boyraz MÜ, Koyuncu İ.

Ethics Approval

The necessary permissions for the applications to be conducted related to the study were granted by Harran University’s Animal Experiments Local Ethics Committee (2022-001/10).



Abbeddou S, Rischkowsky B, Hilali MED, Haylani M, Hess HD, Kreuzer M. 2015; Supplementing diets of Awassi ewes with olive cake and tomato pomace: On-farm recovery of effects on yield, composition and fatty acid profile of the milk. Trop Anim Health Prod. 47:145-152


Abd El-Salam MH, El-Shibiny S. 2013; Bioactive peptides of buffalo, camel, goat, sheep, mare, and yak milks and milk products. Food Rev Int. 29:1-23


Aliyari P, Bakhshi Kazaj F, Barzegar M, Ahmadi Gavlighi H. 2020; Production of functional sausage using pomegranate peel and pistachio green hull extracts as natural preservatives. J Agric Sci Technol. 22:159-172.


Angeles-Hernandez JC, Alberto RV, Kebreab E, Appuhamy JADRN, Dougherty HC, Castelan-Ortega O, Gonzalez-Ronquillo M. 2020; Effect of forage to concentrate ratio and fat supplementation on milk composition in dairy sheep: A meta-analysis. Livest Sci. 238:104069


Bequette BJ, Hanigan MD, Calder AG, Reynolds CK, Lobley GE, MacRae JC. 2000; Amino acid exchange by the mammary gland of lactating goats when histidine limits milk production. J Dairy Sci. 83:765-775


Bittante G, Amalfitano N, Bergamaschi M, Patel N, Haddi ML, Benabid H, Pazzola M, Vacca GM, Tagliapietra F, Schiavon S. 2022; Composition and aptitude for cheese-making of milk from cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, dromedary camels, and donkeys. J Dairy Sci. 105:2132-2152


Caboni P, Murgia A, Porcu A, Demuru M, Pulina G, Nudda A. 2016; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics of goat milk with different polymorphism at the αS1-casein genotype locus. J Dairy Sci. 99:6046-6051


Caboni P, Murgia A, Porcu A, Manis C, Ibba I, Contu M, Scano P. 2019; A metabolomics comparison between sheep's and goat's milk. Food Res Int. 119:869-875


Chilliard Y, Ferlay A, Rouel J, Lamberet G. 2003; A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis. J Dairy Sci. 86:1751-1770


Chiofalo B, Liotta L, Zumbo A, Chiofalo V. 2004; Administration of olive cake for ewe feeding: Effect on milk yield and composition. Small Rumin Res. 55:169-176


Dorea JRR, Armentano LE. 2017; Effects of common dietary fatty acids on milk yield and concentrations of fat and fatty acids in dairy cattle. Anim Prod Sci. 57:2224-2236


Duda-Chodak A, Tarko T. 2007; Antioxidant properties of different fruit seeds and peels. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 6:29-36.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. 2018 Sustainable food systems: Concept and framework. FAO. Rome, Italy: .


Georganas A, Giamouri E, Pappas AC, Papadomichelakis G, Galliou F, Manios T, Tsiplakou E, Fegeros K, Zervas G. 2020; Bioactive compounds in food waste: A review on the transformation of food waste to animal feed. Foods. 9:291


Gustavsson J, Cederberg C, Sonesson U, van Otterdijk R, Meybeck A. 2011 Global food losses and food waste: Extent, causes and prevention. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy: .


Kahraman M, Sakar E, Yurtseven S, Daş A, Yalçin H, Avci M, Güngören G, Doğan Daş B, Şahan A, Takim K, Erol Ak B. 2022; The effect of pistachio shell, pomegranate hull, and olive pulp feeding on milk yield, milk quality, and some biochemical blood parameters in sheep. Harran Univ Vet Fak Derg. 11:84-92.


Khadka YR. 2021; Amino acid-essentiality to human body. Patan Pragya. 8:196-206


Koyuncu İ, Gönel A, Temiz E, Karaoğul E, Uyar Z. 2021; Pistachio green hull extract induces apoptosis through multiple signaling pathways by causing oxidative stress on colon cancer cells. Anti Cancer Agents Med Chem. 21:725-737


Koyuncu İ, Koçyiğit A, Dİkme R, Selek Ş. 2018; Phyotherapeutic properties of Urfa pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.). Bezmialem Sci. 6:200-205


Li M, Li W, Kong F, Kang S, Liang X, Han H, Wu J, Zheng Y, Li Q, Yue X, Yang M. 2020a; Metabolomics methods to analyze full spectrum of amino acids in different domains of bovine colostrum and mature milk. Eur Food Res Technol. 246:213-224


Li Y, Xiong Z, Yan W, Gao E, Cheng H, Wu G, Liu Y, Zhang L, Li C, Wang S, Fan M, Zhao H, Zhang F, Tao L. 2020b; Branched chain amino acids exacerbate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion vulnerability via enhancing GCN2/ATF6/PPAR-α pathway-dependent fatty acid oxidation. Theranostics. 10:5623-5640


Lipinski B, Hanson C, Lomax J, Kitinoja L, Waite R, Searchinger T. 2013 Reducing food loss and waste. World Resources Institute. Washington, DC, USA: .


Mariotti F, Gardner CD. 2019; Dietary protein and amino acids in vegetarian diets: A review. Nutrients. 11:2661


Meijer GAL, van der Meulen J, van Vuuren AM. 1993; Glutamine is a potentially limiting amino acid for milk production in dairy cows: A hypothesis. Metabolism. 42:358-364


Molinero O, Márquez S. 2009; Use of nutritional supplements in sports: Risks, knowledge, and behavioural-related factors. Nutr Hosp. 24:128-134.


Mung D, Li L. 2018; Applying quantitative metabolomics based on chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for detecting potential milk adulterant in human milk. Anal Chim Acta. 1001:78-85


Murgia A, Scano P, Contu M, Ibba I, Altea M, Bussu M, Demurua M, Porcu A, Caboni P. 2016; Characterization of donkey milk and metabolite profile comparison with human milk and formula milk. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 74:427-433


Nardone A, Ronchi B, Lacetera N, Ranieri MS, Bernabucci U. 2010; Effects of climate changes on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Livest Sci. 130:57-69


Ominski K, McAllister T, Stanford K, Mengistu G, Kebebe EG, Omonijo F, Cordeiro M, Legesse G, Wittenberg K. 2021; Utilization of by-products and food waste in livestock production systems: A Canadian perspective. Anim Front. 11:55-63


Ospanov A, Toxanbayeva B. 2020; Switching to sheep’s milk industry: Problems and prospective. EurAsian J Biosci. 14:1263-1271.


Oz O, Koyuncu I, Gonel A. 2022; A pilot study for investigation of plasma amino acid profile in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 25:114-122


Payandeh S, Kafilzadeh F, Juárez M, de la Fuente MA, Ghadimi D, Marín ALM. 2016; Extensive analysis of milk fatty acids in two fat-tailed sheep breeds during lactation. Trop Anim Health Prod. 48:1613-1620


Qi Y, Zhao X, Huang D, Pan X, Yang Y, Zhao H, Hu H, Cheng G. 2018; Exploration of the relationship between intestinal colostrum or milk, and serum metabolites in neonatal calves by metabolomics analysis. J Agric Food Chem. 66:7200-7208


Razzaghi A, Naserian AA, Valizadeh R, Ebrahimi SH, Khorrami B, Malekkhahi M, Khiaosa-ard R. 2015; Pomegranate seed pulp, pistachio hulls, and tomato pomace as replacement of wheat bran increased milk conjugated linoleic acid concentrations without adverse effects on ruminal fermentation and performance of Saanen dairy goats. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 210:46-55


Ribeiro AS, Estanqueiro M, Oliveira MB, Sousa Lobo JM. 2015; Main benefits and applicability of plant extracts in skin care products. Cosmetics. 2:48-65


Sagar NA, Pareek S, Sharma S, Yahia EM, Lobo MG. 2018; Fruit and vegetable waste: Bioactive compounds, their extraction, and possible utilization. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 17:512-531


Sharma A, Bist R. 2019; Alteration in cholinesterases, γ-aminobutyric acid and serotonin level with respect to thiamine deficiency in Swiss mice. Turkish J Biochem. 44:218-223


Shbib S, Rashidlamir A, Hakak Dokht E. 2021; The effects of plyometric training and β-alanine supplementation on anaerobic power and serum level of carnosine in handball players. Sport Sci Health. 17:569-576


Smilowitz JT, O'Sullivan A, Barile D, German JB, Lönnerdal B, Slupsky CM. 2013; The human milk metabolome reveals diverse oligosaccharide profiles. J Nutr. 143:1709-1718


Sun HZ, Wang DM, Wang B, Wang JK, Liu HY, Guan LL, Liu JX. 2015; Metabolomics of four biofluids from dairy cows: Potential biomarkers for milk production and quality. J Proteome Res. 14:1287-1298


Sun HZ, Zhou M, Wang O, Chen Y, Liu JX, Guan LL. 2020; Multi-omics reveals functional genomic and metabolic mechanisms of milk production and quality in dairy cows. Bioinformatics. 36:2530-2537


Sundekilde UK, Gustavsson F, Poulsen NA, Glantz M, Paulsson M, Larsen LB, Bertram HC. 2014; Association between the bovine milk metabolome and rennet-induced coagulation properties of milk. J Dairy Sci. 97:6076-6084


Tabatabaie L, Klomp LW, Berger R, de Koning TJ. 2010; L-Serine synthesis in the central nervous system: A review on serine deficiency disorders. Mol Genet Metab. 99:256-262


Tsiplakou E, Zervas G. 2008; The effect of dietary inclusion of olive tree leaves and grape marc on the content of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid in the milk of dairy sheep and goats. J Dairy Res. 75:270-278


Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu [TÜİK]. 2020. Crop production statistics in Turkey. Available from at Jan 14, 2022.


Varanoske AN, Stout JR, Hoffman JR. 2019; Effects of β-alanine supplementation and intramuscular carnosine content on exercise performance and health.In Nutrition and enhanced sports performance. 2nd ed In: Bagchi D, Nair S, Sen CK, editors.(ed)Academic Press. London, UK: pp p. 327-344


Waghorn GC, McNabb WC. 2003; Consequences of plant phenolic compounds for productivity and health of ruminants. Proc Nutr Soc. 62:383-392


Wang C, Liu H, Wang C, Liu J, Liu H. 2020; Effects of dietary rumen-protected betaine on lactation performance and serum metabolites of mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. J Agric Food Chem. 68:13154-13159


Wang F, Shi H, Wang S, Wang Y, Cao Z, Li S. 2019; Amino acid metabolism in dairy cows and their regulation in milk synthesis. Curr Drug Metab. 20:36-45


Westendorf ML. 2000; Food waste as animal feed: An introduction.In Food waste to animal feed. In: Westendorf ML, editor.(ed)Iowa State University Press. Ames, IA, USA: pp p. 3-16


Wu R, Chen J, Zhang L, Wang X, Yang Y, Ren X. 2021; LC/MS-based metabolomics to evaluate the milk composition of human, horse, goat and cow from China. Eur Food Res Technol. 247:663-675


Xu W, Vervoort J, Saccenti E, Kemp B, van Hoeij RJ, van Knegsel ATM. 2020; Relationship between energy balance and metabolic profiles in plasma and milk of dairy cows in early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 103:4795-4805

FSAR Special Section Invitation

We are pleased to invite you to submit special section paper for Food Science and Animal Resources (FSAR). Both full-length research articles and review articles are welcome for the following issues.

 - Benefits: All the accepted papers for the special topics are eligible for the 50% article processing charge (APC) discount.
 - Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2023

The topics of interest for the special issue include:
 ■ Innovative strategies to improve the quality of animal-based products
  (Editor: Dr. Young Min Choi)
  - Application of proteomics and lipidomics in quality of meat and milk products
  - Functional ingredients and additives for structure formation
  - Meal kits and home meal replacement (HMR), Etc.

 ■ Innovative safety and freshness control of animal-based products
 (Editor: Dr. Changsun Choi)
  - High pressure processing
  - Plasma technology
  - Advanced active packaging and sensor technology (quality indicator, time-and temperature indicator, etc)
  - Edible coating, etc.

I don't want to open this window for a day.