Characterization of chicken nuggets supplemented with mutton and fish livers: Insights of Antioxidant and textural studies

Liaqat Mehmood1, Sawera Asghar1, Syeda Afnan Mujahid1, Hafiz Ubaid ur Rahman1, Nauman khalid1,2,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore 54000 Pakistan
2College of Health Sciences, Abu Dhabi University, Abu Dhabi, 59911 United Arab Emirates
*Corresponding Author: Nauman Khalid, E-mail:

© Copyright 2024 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Oct 01, 2023 ; Revised: Dec 19, 2023 ; Accepted: Jan 12, 2024

Published Online: Jan 25, 2024


This study explores the potential of utilizing meat byproducts, specifically chicken and beef liver, to enhance the nutritional value of processed foods like chicken nuggets. Proximate analysis was conducted on the livers, including moisture, ash, fat, and protein content, and degradation potential was observed. Antioxidant potential (DPPH and TPC) and oxidative stability were performed to evaluate quality changes during seven-day storage. Incorporating the livers into chicken nuggets led to a significant (p=0.000) improvement in nutritional content, particularly a 1.5-2% increase in protein, with a similar increase in mineral content. Texture and sensory evaluations indicated favorable consumer acceptability for liver-enriched nuggets. Overall, this research shows the value of adding liver as a functional ingredient to enhance the nutritional profile of processed foods.

Keywords: Beef liver; Chicken liver; Characterization; Nutritional enhancement; Value-addition