Antifungal efficacy of clove extract in fermented sausage production: A practical approach for microbial control and maintaining quality properties

Eun-Seon Lee1, Jong-Hui Kim1, Bu-Min Kim1, Mi-Hwa Oh1,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Animal Products Research and Development Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: Mi-Hwa Oh. E-mail:

© Copyright 2024 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: May 09, 2024 ; Revised: Jun 24, 2024 ; Accepted: Jul 02, 2024

Published Online: Jul 10, 2024


Fermented sausage products are increasing in popularity. These sausages undergo fermentation and maturation at low temperatures without heating or pasteurization, and during this process, spoilage fungi can contaminate the products. Many technologies developed to control contamination are not available to small-scale farms, given their high cost. Several plant-based materials, including essential oils, have been shown to exhibit anti-fungal properties. Therefore, in this study, clove, marjoram, and black pepper essential oils were analyzed for their antifungal activity against the molds generally detected in fermented sausages. Clove essential oil was confirmed to be the most effective natural substance identified for mold reduction (inhibition zone < 36 mm). The temperature stability test demonstrated high essential oil stability, indicating their efficacy remains conserved during fermentation, refrigeration, and consumption. The fermented sausage treated with both spraying and dipping treatments showed an average reduction of 1.2 and 0.6 log CFU/g for aerobic bacteria and 0.3 and 0.4 log CFU/g for fungi, respectively. The lack of significant quality changes between the control and treatment groups indicates that the spray treatment is considered most suitable for use during production, considering economic factors, antimicrobial effects, and quality characteristics.

Keywords: mold; fermented sausage; aerobic bacteria; essential oil; clove