Effect of Calamansi Pulp Ethanol Extracts on the Meat Quality and Biogenic Amine Formation of Pork Patty during Refrigerated Storage

Jinwoo Cho1,2,, Farouq Heidar Barido1,, Hye-Jin Kim1,3, Hee-Jin Kim1,4, Dongwook Kim1, Dong-Jin Shin1, Aera Jang1,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Applied Animal Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
2Department of Research and Development, Shinsegae Food, Seoul 04793, Korea
3Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Food and Bioconvergence, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
4Poultry Research Institute, National Institute of Animal Science, Pyeongchang 25342, Korea

† These authors contributed equally to this work.

*Corresponding Author: Aera Jang, Department of Applied Animal Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea. Phone: +82-33-250-8643. E-mail:

© Copyright 2022 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Jun 19, 2022 ; Revised: Aug 09, 2022 ; Accepted: Sep 05, 2022

Published Online: Sep 06, 2022


This study evaluated the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) pulp and its effect on quality and biogenic amine (BAs) formation in pork patties during storage. Calamansi pulp extracts (CPE) were prepared using various extraction conditions (ethanol concentrations of 50, 70, and 90% with extraction periods of 3 and 6 days for each concentration). The extract with potent antibacterial and antioxidant activities (90% ethanol extraction for 6 days) was selected for addition to pork patties. Three groups were tested: control (without extract addition), CPE addition at 0.2% w/w (0.2PCPE), and CPE addition at 0.4% w/w (0.4PCPE). The addition of CPE increased meat quality and inhibited the formation of BAs, mainly cadaverine (CAD), histamine (HIM), and tyramine (TYM), in pork patties during storage. The pH and bacterial count of pork patties decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner following the addition of CPE. The instrumental color (lightness, redness, and yellowness) tended to be higher in 0.4PCPE than in the control during storage. The TBARS and VBN values of pork patties were affected by CPE, showing a reduction toward lipid oxidation at any storage period, and maintaining the lowest VBN value in 0.4PCPE at the final storage day. The reduction of total BAs in pork patties was observed ranged between 3.4-38.1% under treatment with 0.2% CPE, whereas 18.4-51.4% under 0.4% CPE addition. These novel findings demonstrate the efficacy of 0.4% CPE as a natural compound to preserve the quality and reduce BAs formation in pork patties during storage.

Keywords: Antioxidant activities; calamansi pulp; biogenic amine; pork patty; meat quality

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