REVIEW

Overview of Studies on the Use of Natural Antioxidative Materials in Meat Products

Seung Yun Lee1https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8861-6517, Da Young Lee1https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3172-0815, On You Kim1https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8456-6516, Hea Jin Kang1https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6765-3434, Hyeong Sang Kim2https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7054-2989, Sun Jin Hur1,*https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9386-5852
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea
2School of Animal Life Convergence Science, Hankyong National University, Anseong 17579, Korea
*Corresponding author : Sun Jin Hur, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea, Tel: +82-31-670-4673, Fax: +82-31-675-3108, E-mail: hursj@cau.ac.kr

© Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Aug 25, 2020 ; Revised: Sep 24, 2020 ; Accepted: Sep 24, 2020

Published Online: Nov 01, 2020

Abstract

Studies conducted in the past decade related to the use of natural antioxidants in meat products revealed the prevalent use of plant-based antioxidative materials added as powders, extracts, or dried or raw materials to meat products. The amount of antioxidative materials varied from 7.8 ppm to 19.8%. Extracts and powders were used in small amounts (ppm to grams) and large amounts (grams to >1%), respectively. Antioxidative materials used in meat products are mainly composed of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, which are able to inhibit lipid peroxidation of meat products, thereby preserving meat quality. However, the main ingredients used in processed meat products are the traditional additives, such as sodium erythorbate, sodium hydrosulfite, and synthetic antioxidants, rather than natural antioxidants. This difference could be attributed to changes in the sensory quality or characteristics of meat products using natural antioxidants. Therefore, novel research paradigms to develop meat products are needed, focusing on the multifunctional aspects of natural antioxidants.

Keywords: meat products; antioxidants; phenolic compounds; phytochemicals; flavonoid

Introduction

Antioxidants, such as polyphenolic compounds, inhibit the oxidation of food molecules by acting as free radical scavengers, singlet oxygen quenchers, metal ion chelators, and hydrogen donors (Hur et al., 2014; Mathew and Abraham, 2006). Polyphenols are good antioxidants owing to the 30–40 dihydroxy groups in their B ring and the galloyl ester in the C ring of flavonoids associated with iron binding (Chu and Chen, 2006; Khokhar and Owusu Apenten, 2003).

Meat products are susceptible to lipid oxidation in the presence of oxygen, light, heat, free radicals, and additives (sodium erythorbate, nitrite, and spices). Processing techniques, such as temperature control, heating, and packaging, can influence the oxidation of meat products (Falowo et al., 2014; Yim et al., 2020). Generally, an abundance of oxidized lipids in meat can reduce quality during storage because color and flavor are closely related to lipid oxidation. In the past decade, numerous antioxidants have been applied to meat products to prevent lipid oxidation, retard the development of off-flavors, and improve color (Kumar et al., 2015). For example, dietary antioxidants can reduce or prevent lipid oxidation in animal muscle foods, and the addition of antioxidants to meat products can improve the stability of oxidation during storage (Falowo et al., 2014; Zhou et al., 2020).

Although various antioxidative materials have been widely applied to meat products, this is less common in the meat industry. Furthermore, although natural antioxidants could conceivably replace synthetic antioxidants in meat products, they have rarely been used in the meat industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the reason for the lack of application of natural antioxidants in the meat industry through a comprehensive literature review, and to suggest a possible way to increase the use of natural antioxidants for manufacturing meat products.

Oxidation in Meat Products

Oxidation is one of the main factors associated with the reduction or degradation of quality of meat products without a microbial reaction. Oxidative processes affect several components, such as lipids and proteins, in meat, which contributes to not only the deterioration and acceptability failure of meat products, but also unfavorable consumer behavior or acceptance (Kumar et al., 2015). These factors lead to the development of an off-flavor, deterioration of color, and a decrease in nutritional quality due to the decomposition of essential fatty acids and vitamins (Domínguez et al., 2019).

Lipid oxidation in meat products is mainly generated through multiple factors, such as the fatty acid composition, heme proteins, and metals (Domínguez et al., 2019). Lipids are mainly composed of triglycerides and phospholipids; phospholipids, in particular, are responsible for the development of lipid oxidation and rancidity, because they are implicated in malondialdehyde formation as secondary products of lipid oxidation (Pikul et al., 1984). Pigment oxidation is caused by an iron ion binding to four N atoms within the heme protein (myoglobin). Myoglobin, called meat pigment, causes oxidation via free radical reaction, resulting in the oxidation of ferrous ions (Fe2+) to the ferric form (Fe3+). Protein oxidation occurs through the oxidative modification of several amino acids and free radical-mediated cleavage of the peptides and proteins, which contribute to the reaction of lipid peroxidation products (Ribeiro et al., 2019). Among amino acids, methionine, cysteine, arginine, tryptophan, and histidine residues (sulfhydryl, imidazole ring, thioether, and indole ring) are vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) through lipid peroxidation (Lobo et al., 2010). Besides, protein oxidation has been associated with the deterioration of the tenderness and juiciness of meat, as well as the reduction in the contents of essential amino acids and digestibility (Bhattacharya et al., 2016). Moreover, the multiple toxic compounds generated during lipid oxidation have been implicated in several human pathologies such as cancer, inflammation, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and aging processes (Pereira and Abreu, 2018; Sottero et al., 2019). Thus, the use of antioxidant materials is vital in the meat industry.

Antioxidant Materials used in Meat Products

Tables 14 show the antioxidants used in meat products, and their active compounds and factors, as found in previous studies. These materials have been used in many meat products, including pork patties, pork sausage, ham, beef patties, beef sausage, beef jerky, chicken patties, chicken sausage, lamb meat, and goat meat products (Tables 14). Most studies have focused on plant-based antioxidative materials, such as phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, chlorogenic acid, lycopene, quercetin, catechins, tocopherol, rutin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, protocatechuic acid, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, myricetin, caronosine, kaempferol, zeaxanthin, chrysin, chlorophyll, sesamol, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, carnosol, and gallic acid.

Table 1. Use of antioxidants in meat products from pork
Meat product Raw materials/concentration Active compounds Active factors Reference
Pork patties Ethanol extracted tomato powder/1% Lycopene, gallic acid, catechin DPPH radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating ability, reducing power (Kim and Chin, 2017)
Ethanol extract of curry leaf, water extract of mint leaf/1% Phenolics DPPH, superoxide and ABTS radicals-scavenging activity (Biswas et al., 2012)
Spent, ground, and lyophilized brew from roasted coffee Chlorogenic acid, Maillard reaction products Iron-chelating ability (Jully et al., 2016)
Ball-milled persimmon byproduct powder/0.5%, 1% Phenolics, flavonoids DPPH radical-scavenging activity (Ramachandraiah and Chin, 2018)
Ethanol extracts of dried spices/0.05% Phenolics DPPH radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating ability, reducing power (Kong et al., 2010)
Ethanol extracts of black currant/0.5%, 1%, 2% Anthocyanin DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (Jia et al., 2012)
70% ethanol extracted Du-zhong/0.1% Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol DPPH radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (Xu et al., 2010)
80% ethanol extracted pomegranate rind powder extract and seed powder extract, pomegranate juice/0.02% NA TBARS, POV (Qin et al., 2013)
Water and methanol extracted garlic Phenolics DPPH radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating ability, reducing power (Park and Chin, 2010)
Grape seed extractTM, oleoresin rosemaryTM, water-soluble oregano extractTM/0.02% NA TBARS (Sasse et al., 2009)
Methanol extract of red grape pomace/0.06% Phenolics, anthocyanins TBARS (Garrido et al., 2011)
Air dried lotus leaf and barley leaf powder/0.1%, 0.5% NA TBARS, POV (Choe et al., 2011)
Rosemary extracts® and green tea extracts NA TBARS, thiol group concentration (Haak et al., 2009)
70% ethanol of mustard leaf kimchi/0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2% NA TBARS, conjugated dienes, POV, free fatty acids (Lee et al., 2010)
Rosemary and lemon balm extracts/ 0.03% and 0.1% Phenolics TBARS (Lara et al., 2011)
Pork sausage Waster extract of spirulina platensis and purified polysaccharide/0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5% Maillard products DPPH radical-scavenging activity (Luo et al., 2017)
Ethanol extract of rosemary, rosemary essential oil/0.2% Phenolic compounds DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (Bianchin et al., 2017)
Water extract of Jabuticaba/2%, 4% Anthocyanin, phenolics DPPH radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (Baldin et al., 2016)
Water extract of Citrus paradise bark/0.25% Phenolics, flavonoids DPPH radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (Sayari et al., 2015)
Clove bud powder/0.1%, 0.2% Phenolics DPPH radical-scavenging activity (Jin et al., 2016)
Ethanol extract of bee pollen/0.02% p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, rutin, myricetin, trans-cinnamic acid, quercetin, kaempferol DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (de Florio Almeida et al., 2017)
60% ethanol extract of peanut kernel/0.01% Stilbenes DPPH and ABTS radical- scavenging activity, reducing power (Ko et al., 2018)
Methanol extract of Pistacia lentiscus L. leaf and fruit/0.03% Phenolics DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (Botsaris et al., 2015)
80% ethanol extract of blueberry leaf extract/0.2% Phenolics, chlorogenic acid ABTS radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (Hur et al., 2013)
Adzuki bean extract/0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% Phenolics TBARS (Jayawardana et al., 2011)
Plant-derived nutraceuticals/0.02%–0.03% NA TBARS (Hayes et al., 2011)
Water extract of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Phenolics, flavonoids DPPH radical-scavenging activity, POV (Park et al., 2013)
Green tea and rosemary extractsTM NA TBARS (Jongberg et al., 2013)
Norbixin/10%, lycopene/10%, zeaxanthin/5%, β-carotene/10% Norbixin, lycopene, zeaxanthin, β-carotene TBARS (Mercadante et al., 2010)
Satureja montana L. essential oil/7.8, 15.6 and 31.25 ppm NA DPPH radical-scavenging activity, TBARS (Coutinho de Oliveira et al., 2012)
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) red pigment NA TBARS (Kim et al., 2015)
Pork fermented sausage Ethanol extract of Kitaibelia vitifolia/1.25%, 3% Phenolics, flavonoids DPPH, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating ability (Kurćubić et al., 2014)
Lyophilized water extracts of Borago officinalis/340 ppm Phenolics DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity (de Ciriano et al., 2009)
Water extract of Melissa offcinalis L./686 ppm NA DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity (de Ciriano et al., 2010)
Rosemary powder/1,000, 2,000 ppm, rosemary extract/250, 500 ppm NA TBARS (Gök et al., 2011)
Ethanol : water (1:1) extracts of grape seed and chestnut Phenolics DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, TBARS (Lorenzo et al., 2013)
Freeze-dried leek powder/0.84%, 1.68% NA TBARS (Tsoukalas et al., 2011)
Pork ham Fresh and dried plum/2.5%, 5% NA TBARS (Nuñez de Gonzalez et al., 2009)
Apple polyphenol/300, 500, 1000 ppm NA TBARS (Sun et al., 2010)
Pork nuggets Kordoi fruit juice, water extract of bamboo shoot/4%, 6% Phenolics TBARS (Thomas et al., 2016)

DPPH, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); NA, not analyzed; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; POV, peroxide value.

Download Excel Table
Table 2. Use of antioxidants in meat products from beef
Meat product Raw materials/concentration Active compounds Active factors Reference
Beef patties Vitamin E, carnosine, grape seed extract, tea catechin/0.03% Vitamin E, L-carnosine, polyphenols, catechin TBARS (Liu et al., 2015)
Ethanol extracts of leafy green vegetables/1% Polyphenols, flavonoids DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (Kim et al., 2013)
Water extracts of Nitraria retusa/0.5%, 0.75%, 1% Phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins DPPH radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (Mariem et al., 2014)
Lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis/40–500 ppm Phenolics Oxygen radical-absorption capacity (Barriuso et al., 2015)
Ethanol extracts of propolis/2% Cinnamic acid, rutin, myricetin, quercetin, chrysin, kaempferol, apigenin DPPH radical-scavenging activity (Vargas-Sánchez et al., 2014)
Ethanol : water solution (7:3) extracts of Moringa oleifera L. and Bidens pilosa L. leaf/0.1% Carotenoid, chlorophyll DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, TBARS (Falowo et al., 2017)
Rosemary powder/0.1% NA TBARS (Sánchez-Escalante et al., 2011)
Water extract of grape seed, and rosemary extract®/0.2%–1.5% Phenolics ABTS radical-scavenging activity (Gibis and Weiss, 2012)
Water extract of hibiscus/0.2%–0.8% Phenolics ABTS radical-scavenging activity (Gibis and Weiss, 2010)
Olive leaf extract/0.01%, 0.02% NA TBARS (Hayes, et al., 2011)
Grape seed extractTM, oleoresin rosemary®, water-soluble oregano extractTM/0.02% NA TBARS (Colindres and Susan Brewer, 2011)
White grape extract/500 ppm NA TBARS (Jongberg et al., 2011)
Tea catechins, carnosine, α-tocopherol/0.03% Tea catechins, carnosine, α-tocopherol TBARS (Liu et al., 2010)
Galangal, fingerroot, turmeric, cumin, coriander seeds/0.2% Phenolics DPPH radical-scavenging activity (Puangsombat et al., 2011)
Essential oils of marjoram and rosemary/200 ppm NA TBARS (Mohamed and Mansour, 2012)
Plum puree/5%, 10%, 15% NA TBARS (Yıldız-Turp and Serdaroglu, 2010)
Water extract of summer savory (Satureja hortensis)/100, 250, 500 ppm NA TBARS (AKSU and ÖZER, 2013)
Water extract of Urtica dioica L./200, 500 ppm NA TBARS (Alp and Aksu, 2010)
70% ethanol and water extracts of ten edible plant/0.1%, 0.5% Phenolics, chlorophyll, vitamin C, carotenoids DPPH radical-scavenging activity, TBARS (Kim et al., 2013)
80% ethanol extract of peanut skin/0.02%–0.1% NA TBARS, POV (Yu et al., 2010)
Tocopherols/0.1%, oregano-rosemary/0.05% α-Tocopherol,
β-tocopherol,
γ-tocopherol,
δ-tocopherol
TBARS (Pennisi Forell et al., 2010)
74% ethanol extract of vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) Phenolics, dihydromyricetin DPPH radical-scavenging activity, TBARS (Ye et al., 2015)
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil/0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25% Phenolics TBARS (Chaleshtori et al., 2015)
Methanol extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds Phenolics DPPH radical-scavenging activity, TBARS (Mohd-Esa et al., 2010)
Ascorbic acid/0.05%, α-tocopherol/0.01%, sesamol/0.01% Ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, sesamol TBARS (Ismail et al., 2009)
Rosemary and oregano extractsTM/400 ppm NA TBARS (Trindade et al., 2010)
Methanol : water : acetone : formic acid (20:40:40:1) extract of date pits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Phenolics Reducing power, TBARS (Amany et al., 2012)
Rosemary ethanol extract/0.05%, 0.2%, 0.5% Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid DPPH radical-scavenging activity (Puangsombat, et al., 2011)
Beef sausage Pomegranate rind powder/1%, 2%, 3%, red beet powder/1%, 3%, 5% Phenolics DPPH radical-scavenging activity, TBARS (El-Gharably and Ashoush, 2011)
Rosemary extract/250 ppm, mint extract/62 ppm NA TBARS, POV (Azizkhani and Tooryan, 2015)
Water extract of grape seed/100, 300, 500 ppm NA TBARS (Kulkarni et al., 2011)
Carrot juice/19.8% Carotenoids, phenolics TBARS, POV (Badr and Mahmoud, 2011)
Beef jerky Salicornia herbacea powder/0.5%, 1% NA TBARS (Lim et al., 2013)
Methanol extracts of Citrus junos sieb. and Prunus mume/1% NA TBARS (Lim et al., 2012)

TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; DPPH, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); NA, not analyzed; POV, peroxide value.

Download Excel Table
Table 3. Use of antioxidants in meat products from chicken
Meat product Raw materials/concentration Active compounds Active factors Reference
Chicken patties Plum peel pulp microparticles/2% β-Carotene, lutein, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, proanthocyanidins, flavonoids Reducing power (Basanta et al., 2018)
Grape dietary fiber/0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% Phenolics ABTS radical scavenging activity, TBARS (Sáyago-Ayerdi et al., 2009)
Water extract of pomegranate juice, pomegranate rind powder/0.01% Phenolics DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, TBARS (Naveena et al., 2008)
Colorifico/0.4% Vitamin E TBARS (Castro et al., 2011)
Aqueous extracts of curry leaves, fenugreek leaves/2% Phenolics DPPH radical scavenging activity, TBARS (Devatkal et al., 2012)
Water extract of pomegranate rind powder/50, 100, 150, 200 ppm Phenolics DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, TBARS (Naveena et al., 2008)
Water extract of kinnow and pomegranate byproduct/2% Phenolics TBARS (Devatkal et al., 2011)
Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf powder/0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% NA TBARS, VBN (Choi et al., 2011)
80% ethanol extract of peanut skin/3% Phenolics DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, TBARS (Munekata et al., 2015)
MeOH:EtOH (1:1) extract of strawberry/0.65%, 1.3% NA DPPH radical scavenging activity, TBARS (Saha et al., 2011)
Green tea extract/400 ppm NA TBARS (Jamwal et al., 2015)
Chicken sausage Rosemary, Chinese mahogany/500, 1,000, 1,500 ppm Phenolics TBARS, VBN (Liu et al., 2009)
Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves/0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1% Phenolics DPPH radical scavenging activity, TBARS (Jayawardana et al., 2015)
Garlic, coriander/2%, 3%, 5% NA TBARS (Bali et al., 2011)
50% ethanol extract of mugwort/0.2% NA TBARS (Hwang et al., 2015)
Sorghum bran/0.02% NA TBARS, POV (Shin et al., 2011)
Chicken nuggets Ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.)/0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2% NA TBARS, POV (Hwang et al., 2013)
Chicken meat balls Pomegranate rind powder extract/2.5%, 5% NA TBARS (Chandralekha et al., 2012)
Chicken lollipop, chicken chili Water extract of pomegranate peel/0.1%, 0.5% Phenolics, flavonoids DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging activity, reducing power, iron chelating ability, TBARS (Kanatt et al., 2010)

ABTS, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; DPPH, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; NA, not analyzed; VBN, volatile basic nitrogen; POV, peroxide value.

Download Excel Table
Table 4. Use of antioxidants in meat products from other sources
Meat product Raw materials/concentration Active compounds Active factors Reference
Lamb patties Aqueous extracts of tomato, red grape, olive, and pomegranate byproducts/0.1% Phenolics, lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C DPPH radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating ability, reducing power (Andrés et al., 2017)
Goat meat patties Water extract of Moringa oleifera leaves/0.1% Phenolics, flavonoids DPPH radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, TBARS (Das et al., 2012)
Kinnow rind, pomegranate rind and seed powders/0.5% Phenolics DPPH radical-scavenging activity, TBARS (Devatkal et al., 2010)
Goat meat nuggets Water extract of pomegranate peel/1% NA TBARS (Devatkal et al., 2014)
Water extract of broccoli powder/1%, 1.5%, 2% Phenolics DPPH radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, TBARS (Banerjee et al., 2012)
Restructured mutton slices Grape seed extract/0.1% NA TBARS (Reddy et al., 2013)
Buffalo patties Clove essential oil/0.1%, grape seed extract/0.1%, 0.2% NA TBARS (Tajik et al., 2014)

DPPH, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; NA, not analyzed.

Download Excel Table

Antioxidative materials can be applied to an animal’s diet either to reduce or prevent the oxidation of processed meat products (Aslam et al., 2020; Kumar et al., 2015; Oh et al., 2020). Most of the surveyed studies involved simple applications, such as adding or mixing antioxidative materials (powders, extracts, or dried or raw materials) into meat products.

In Tables 14, the levels of antioxidative materials used in meat products varied from 7.8 ppm to 19.8%, with levels depending on the characteristics of the antioxidative materials. For instance, extracts were used in small amounts, whereas antioxidative powders, puree, or juice were used in large amounts. Overall, the use of antioxidants in meat products contributed to the inhibition of the activities of different radicals (e.g., DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radicals), TBARS, free fatty acids, volatile basic nitrogen, and peroxide value. Furthermore, the antioxidants used in meat products contribute to increased iron-chelating activity, reducing power, and superoxide dismutase.

The survey revealed that approximately 70% of the many natural antioxidant materials used in meat products have been plant extracts. Their frequent use may reflect their phenolic-rich nature, which provides a good alternative to synthetic antioxidants (Shah et al., 2014). In general, plant extracts are obtained using different solvents. Antioxidative activity is affected by the extraction methods and solvents because the yield and composition of antioxidative compounds, such as phenolic compounds and flavonoids, depend on the extraction solvents and methods. The extraction yield depends on solvent polarity, pH changes, extraction temperature, extraction time, and chemical composition of the sample. For the same extraction conditions (time and temperature), the solvent and the composition of the sample are the most important parameters (Turkmen et al., 2006). Ethanol and water are the most frequently used extraction solvents, likely because they are edible and safe. To obtain polyphenols from plant resources, polar solvents are frequently used. Ethanol is a suitable solvent for polyphenol extraction (Shah et al., 2014). Methanol is suitable for the extraction of low-molecular-weight polyphenols, and acetone is a good solvent for the extraction of high-molecular-weight flavonoids (Dai and Mumper, 2010; Shah et al., 2014). In this survey, all antioxidative materials that were used were known to exhibit antioxidative activity in meat products after cooking or during storage. Most phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds and flavonoids, are known to have antioxidative activity in other food sources. Thus, the antioxidative activity of various phytochemicals obtained from plant-based foods depends on the extraction solvents and methods, and they can inhibit oxidation in meat products through their antioxidative ability.

Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of Antioxidative Materials used in Meat Products

In meat products, lipid oxidation can reduce meat quality by the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids and the conversion of oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin pigment, resulting in the generation of free radicals that might lead to deterioration of the meat (Suman and Joseph, 2013). Therefore, retarding lipid oxidation during storage is important for preserving the quality of meat products. The content of phenolic compounds is regarded as an effective source of antioxidants to inhibit oxidation in muscle-based foods (Kumar et al., 2015; Pennington and Fisher, 2009). The aromatic ring structure primarily determines the antioxidative character of phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, quinones, diterpenes, tannins, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, stilbenes, and flavonoids.

Phenolic antioxidants interfere with the oxidation process as free radical terminators and metal chelators (Shahidi and Ambigaipalan, 2015) because phenolic compounds have strong hydrogen radical (H˙)-donating activity (Muchuweti et al., 2007) and the presence of aromatic hydroxyl (OH) groups in phenolic compounds is a critical determinant of their H donation and free radical-scavenging activity (Ng et al., 2000). The antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds depends on the number and arrangement of the OH groups in the molecules of interest (Shahidi and Ambigaipalan, 2015).

Free OH flavonoid groups scavenge free radicals and chelate metal ions, including Fe2+, Fe3+, and Cu2+. Flavonoids exhibit antioxidative activity because their chemical structures contain an o-diphenolic group, a 2–3 double bond conjugated with the 4-oxo function, and OH groups at positions 3 and 5 (Hur et al., 2014). The flavonoid heterocycle contributes to the antioxidant activity through a free 3-OH and by permitting the conjugation between the aromatic rings (Heim et al., 2002). Polyphenols are good natural antioxidants because they have a number of OH groups, which confer antioxidative properties to these compounds (Chu and Chen, 2006; Hur et al., 2014; Khokhar and Owusu Apenten, 2003).

Therefore, antioxidative materials can inhibit lipid oxidation by preventing chain inhibition by scavenging oxidation-initiating radicals, breaking chain reactions, decomposing peroxides, decreasing localized oxygen concentrations, and binding to chain formation-initiating catalysts, such as metal ion catalysts.

Commercial Application of Antioxidative Materials in Meat Products

For several decades, numerous natural antioxidants have been widely studied in the food science field, including in meat products. However, the use of natural antioxidants in the meat industry is scarce.

We found that most of these processed meat products were prepared using traditional additives, such as vitamin C and E, sodium erythorbate, or sodium hydrosulfite, as antioxidants, instead of natural antioxidants (phytochemicals, other vitamins, or extracts). Although several processed meats are labeled as “organic” and “natural”, they do not use natural antioxidants. Therefore, we cannot present data on the development of meat products using natural antioxidants.

This indicates a lack of research attention to natural antioxidants in the development of meat products. Therefore, we offer the following suggestions or comments for the study of antioxidants and their use in the meat industry.

First, the lack of utilization of natural antioxidants could be due to the fact that using synthetic antioxidants is more cost-effective, safer, and simpler than using natural antioxidants (Mbah et al., 2019; Pokorný, 2007).

  • The meat industry has difficulty in developing products using natural antioxidants because of the possibility of changing the sensory characteristics of products.

  • The shelf-life of meat products can easily be extended by controlling temperature conditions, employing packaging methods, and using preservatives.

  • Consumers may not be interested in the benefits of increasing the shelf life of meat products or issues related to lipid oxidation.

  • Some consumers prefer meat products with a short shelf-life because they think that products with a short shelf-life lack additives or are natural.

Second, scientists already know the antioxidant activity of most natural substances containing phytochemicals, but consumers and the meat industry are less aware of this.

  • Traditional spices in meat products are known to have strong antioxidative activity. These spices include rosemary, nutmeg, cloves, fennel, onion, garlic, ginger, thyme, pepper, cumin, caraway, coriander, laurel leaf, allspice, anise, basil, cardamom, oregano, and turmeric.

  • The main mechanisms underlying the antioxidative activity of phytochemicals in meat products have already been discovered (Falowo et al., 2014; Kumar et al., 2013; Kumar et al., 2015).

  • Because of the increasing health awareness of consumers, meat products using natural antioxidants have a positive effect on purchasing behavior (Karre et al., 2013; Mitterer-daltoé et al., 2020). Therefore, it is necessary to encourage the meat industry to use or label natural food antioxidants from this point of view.

  • Most phytochemicals and many natural sources exhibit antioxidative activity, and there is a need to further confirm this for their application in the meat industry.

  • There is a need to publish a paper (i.e., presenting the antioxidative effect of extracts or phytochemicals) with an accurate examination of the structure or profile of extracts from plant-based foods or phytochemicals.

  • There is a need to study the exact structural profile of active compounds of new materials in addition to approaches for improving antioxidant activity.

Third, although the use of natural antioxidants is limited in developing meat products, natural antioxidants or bioactive materials should be considered multifunctional, providing antioxidative activity, reducing harmful substances, improving color stability, improving flavor, or controlling pathogens at low cost.

  • Bioactive compounds such as antioxidants that are multifunctional could be more usable.

  • Certain antioxidants can effectively prevent the production of carcinogens (heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, biogenic amines, or benzopyrene) during cooking.

  • Certain antioxidants can effectively replace sodium nitrite as a coloring agent.

  • Certain antioxidants can be used as novel spices in meat products.

  • Antioxidants should be safe to ingest.

  • Antioxidants should be readily available and inexpensive.

Taken together, we suggest that more efforts are needed to develop safer, easy-to-obtain, easy-to-use, and cost-effective materials, and to promote these materials to consumers and the meat industry.

Conclusion

Numerous plant resources are rich in vitamins, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids. All these compounds possess antioxidative activity and can hence inhibit the lipid oxidation of meat products during cooking or storage. The antioxidative activity of these phytochemicals in meat products has long been recognized, widely studied, and confirmed, and the mechanisms underlying their action have already been tested. For these reasons, studies on the antioxidative effects of phytochemical or plant resources (extracts, oils, seeds, or powders) on meat products are predictable. However, despite the prospect that natural antioxidants could replace synthetic antioxidants in meat products, natural antioxidants are rarely used in the meat industry. Meat scientists must develop novel research paradigms that allow the use of bioactive compounds in the development of meat products.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Main Research Program (20200764) of the Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: Hur SJ. Data curation: Lee SY, Lee DY, Kang HJ, Kim HS. Investigation: Lee SY, Lee DY, Kang HJ, Kim HS. Writing-original draft: Lee SY, Hur SJ. Writing-review & editing: Lee SY, Lee DY, Kim OY, Kang HJ, Kim HS, Hur SJ.

Ethics Approval

This article does not require IRB/IACUC approval because there are no human and animal participants.

References

1.

Aksu MI, Özer H. 2013; Effects of lyophilized water extract of Satureja hortensis on the shelf life and quality properties of ground beef. J Food Process Preserv. 37:777-783

2.

Alp E, Aksu Mİ. 2010; Effects of water extract of Urtica dioica L. and modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life of ground beef. Meat Sci. 86:468-473

3.

Amany MMB, Shaker MA, Abeer AK. 2012; Antioxidant activities of date pits in a model meat system. Int Food Res J. 19:223-227.

4.

Andrés AI, Petrón MJ, Adámez JD, López M, Timón ML. 2017; Food by-products as potential antioxidant and antimicrobial additives in chill stored raw lamb patties. Meat Sci. 129:62-70

5.

Aslam S, Shukat R, Khan MI, Shahid M. 2020; Effect of dietary supplementation of bioactive peptides on antioxidant potential of broiler breast meat and physicochemical characteristics of nuggets. Food Sci Anim Resour. 40:55-73

6.

Azizkhani M, Tooryan F. 2015; Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extract, mint extract and a mixture of tocopherols in beef sausage during storage at 4C. J Food Saf. 35:128-136

7.

Badr HM, Mahmoud KA. 2011; Antioxidant activity of carrot juice in gamma irradiated beef sausage during refrigerated and frozen storage. Food Chem. 127:1119-1130

8.

Baldin JC, Michelin EC, Polizer YJ, Rodrigues I, de Godoy SHS, Fregonesi RP, Pires MA, Carvalho LT, Fávaro-Trindade CS, de Lima CG, Fernandes AM, Trindade MA. 2016; Microencapsulated jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) extract added to fresh sausage as natural dye with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Meat Sci. 118:15-21

9.

Bali A, Das SK, Khan A, Patra D, Biswas S, Bhattacharyya D. 2011; A comparative study on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of garlic and coriander on chicken sausage. Int J Meat Sci. 1:108-116

10.

Banerjee R, Verma AK, Das AK, Rajkumar V, Shewalkar AA, Narkhede HP. 2012; Antioxidant effects of broccoli powder extract in goat meat nuggets. Meat Sci. 91:179-184

11.

Barriuso B, Ansorena D, Calvo MI, Cavero RY, Astiasarán I. 2015; Role of Melissa officinalis in cholesterol oxidation: Antioxidant effect in model systems and application in beef patties. Food Res Int. 69:133-140

12.

Basanta MF, Rizzo SA, Szerman N, Vaudagna SR, Descalzo AM, Gerschenson LN, Pérez CD, Rojas AM. 2018; Plum (Prunus salicina) peel and pulp microparticles as natural antioxidant additives in breast chicken patties. Food Res Int. 106:1086-1094

13.

Bhattacharya D, Kandeepan G, Vishnuraj MR. 2016; Protein oxidation in meat and meat products-A review. J Meat Sci Technol. 4:44-52.

14.

Bianchin M, Pereira DG, dos Reis AS, de Florio Almeida J, da Silva LD, de Moura C, Carpes ST. 2017; Rosemary essential oil and lyophilized extract as natural antioxidant source to prevent lipid oxidation in pork sausage. Adv J Food Sci Technol. 13:210-217

15.

Biswas AK, Chatli MK, Sahoo J. 2012; Antioxidant potential of curry (Murraya koenigii L. and mint (Mentha spicata) leaf extracts and their effect on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigeration storage. Food Chem. 133:467-472

16.

Botsaris G, Orphanides A, Yiannakou E, Gekas V, Goulas V. 2015; Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. extracts in pork sausages. Food Technol Biotechnol. 53:472-478

17.

Castro WF, Mariutti LRB, Bragagnolo N. 2011; The effects of colorifico on lipid oxidation, colour and vitamin E in raw and grilled chicken patties during frozen storage. Food Chem. 124:126-131

18.

Chaleshtori SR, Rokni N, Rafieian-kopaei M, Drees F, Salehi E. 2015; Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil in beef burger. J Agric Sci Technol. 17:817-826.

19.

Chandralekha S, Jagadeesh Babu A, Moorthy PRS, Karthikeyan B. 2012; Studies on the effect of pomegranate rind powder extract as natural antioxidant in chicken meat balls during refrigerated storage. J Adv Vet Res. 2:107-112.

20.

Choe JH, Jang A, Lee ES, Choi JH, Choi YS, Han DJ, Kim HY, Lee MA, Shim SY, Kim CJ. 2011; Oxidative and color stability of cooked ground pork containing lotus leaf (Nelumbo nucifera) and barley leaf (Hordeum vulgare) powder during refrigerated storage. Meat Sci. 87:12-18

21.

Choi YS, Choi JH, Kim HY, Kim HW, Lee MA, Chung HJ, Lee SK, Kim CJ. 2011; Effect of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf powder on the quality characteristics of chicken patties in refrigerated storage. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 31:9-18

22.

Chu SC, Chen C. 2006; Effects of origins and fermentation time on the antioxidant activities of kombucha. Food Chem. 98:502-507

23.

Colindres P, Susan Brewer M. 2011; Oxidative stability of cooked, frozen, reheated beef patties: Effect of antioxidants. J Sci Food Agric. 91:963-968

24.

Coutinho de Oliveira TL, de Carvalho SM, de Araújo Soares R, Andrade MA, das Graças Cardoso M, Ramos EM, Piccoli RH. 2012; Antioxidant effects of Satureja montana L. essential oil on TBARS and color of mortadella-type sausages formulated with different levels of sodium nitrite. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 45:204-212

25.

Dai J, Mumper RJ. 2010; Plant phenolics: Extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules. 15:7313-7352

26.

Das AK, Rajkumar V, Verma AK, Swarup D. 2012; Moringa oleiferia leaves extract: A natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in cooked goat meat patties. Int J Food Sci Technol. 47:585-591

27.

de Ciriano MGI, García-Herreros C, Larequi E, Valencia I, Ansorena D, Astiasarán I. 2009; Use of natural antioxidants from lyophilized water extracts of Borago officinalis in dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA. Meat Sci. 83:271-277

28.

de Ciriano MGI, Rehecho S, Calvo MI, Cavero RY, Navarro Í, Astiasarán I, Ansorena D. 2010; Effect of lyophilized water extracts of Melissa officinalis on the stability of algae and linseed oil-in-water emulsion to be used as a functional ingredient in meat products. Meat Sci. 85:373-377

29.

de Florio Almeida J, dos Reis AS, Heldt LFS, Pereira D, Bianchin M, de Moura C, Plata-Oviedo MV, Haminiuk CWI, Ribeiro IS, da Luz CFP, Carpes ST. 2017; Lyophilized bee pollen extract: A natural antioxidant source to prevent lipid oxidation in refrigerated sausages. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 76:299-305

30.

Devatkal SK, Narsaiah K, Borah A. 2010; Anti-oxidant effect of extracts of kinnow rind, pomegranate rind and seed powders in cooked goat meat patties. Meat Sci. 85:155-159

31.

Devatkal SK, Narsaiah K, Borah A. 2011; The effect of salt, extract of kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-products on colour and oxidative stability of raw chicken patties during refrigerated storage. J Food Sci Technol. 48:472-477

32.

Devatkal SK, Thorat P, Manjunatha M. 2014; Effect of vacuum packaging and pomegranate peel extract on quality aspects of ground goat meat and nuggets. J Food Sci Technol. 51:2685-2691

33.

Devatkal SK, Thorat PR, Manjunatha M, Anurag RK. 2012; Comparative antioxidant effect of aqueous extracts of curry leaves, fenugreek leaves and butylated hydroxytoluene in raw chicken patties. J Food Sci Technol. 49:781-785

34.

Domínguez R, Pateiro M, Gagaoua M, Barba FJ, Zhang W, Lorenzo JM. 2019; A comprehensive review on lipid oxidation in meat and meat products. Antioxidants. 8:429

35.

El-Gharably AMA, Ashoush IS. 2011; Utilization impact of adding pomegranate rind powder and red beet powder as natural antioxidant on quality characteristics of beef sausage. World J Dairy Food Sci. 6:86-97.

36.

Falowo AB, Fayemi PO, Muchenje V. 2014; Natural antioxidants against lipid–protein oxidative deterioration in meat and meat products: A review. Food Res Int. 64:171-181

37.

Falowo AB, Muchenje V, Hugo A, Aiyegoro OA, Fayemi PO. 2017; Antioxidant activities of Moringa oleifera L. and Bidens pilosa L. leaf extracts and their effects on oxidative stability of ground raw beef during refrigeration storage. CyTA-J Food. 15:249-256

38.

Garrido MD, Auqui M, Martí N, Linares MB. 2011; Effect of two different red grape pomace extracts obtained under different extraction systems on meat quality of pork burgers. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 44:2238-2243

39.

Gibis M, Weiss J. 2010; Inhibitory effect of marinades with hibiscus extract on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and sensory quality of fried beef patties. Meat Sci. 85:735-742

40.

Gibis M, Weiss J. 2012; Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties. Food Chem. 134:766-774

41.

Gök V, Obuz E, Şahin ME, Serteser A. 2011; The effects of some natural antioxidants on the color, chemical and microbiological properties of sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage) during ripening and storage periods. J Food Process Preserv. 35:677-690

42.

Haak L, Raes K, De Smet S. 2009; Effect of plant phenolics, tocopherol and ascorbic acid on oxidative stability of pork patties. J Sci Food Agric. 89:1360-1365

43.

Hayes JE, Stepanyan V, Allen P, O’Grady MN, Kerry JP. 2011; Evaluation of the effects of selected plant-derived nutraceuticals on the quality and shelf-life stability of raw and cooked pork sausages. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 44:164-172

44.

Heim KE, Tagliaferro AR, Bobilya DJ. 2002; Flavonoid antioxidants: Chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. J Nutr Biochem. 13:572-584

45.

Hur SJ, Kim DH, Chun SC, Lee SK. 2013; Antioxidative changes of blueberry leaf extracts in emulsion-type sausage during in vitro digestion. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 33:689-695

46.

Hur SJ, Lee SY, Kim YC, Choi I, Kim GB. 2014; Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods. Food Chem. 160:346-356

47.

Hwang KE, Choi YS, Choi SM, Kim HW, Choi JH, Lee MA, Kim CJ. 2013; Antioxidant action of ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp. in combination with ascorbic acid to increase the shelf life in raw and deep fried chicken nuggets. Meat Sci. 95:593-602

48.

Hwang KE, Kim HW, Song DH, Kim YJ, Ham YK, Lee JW, Choi YS, Kim CJ. 2015; Effects of antioxidant combinations on shelf stability of irradiated chicken sausage during storage. Radiat Phys Chem. 106:315-319

49.

Ismail HA, Lee EJ, Ko KY, Paik HD, Ahn DU. 2009; Effect of antioxidant application methods on the color, lipid oxidation, and volatiles of irradiated ground beef. J Food Sci. 74:C25-C32

50.

Jamwal A, Kumar S, Bhat ZF, Kumar A, Kaur S. 2015; The quality and storage stability of chicken patties prepared with different additives. Nutr Food Sci. 45:728-739

51.

Jayawardana BC, Hirano T, Han KH, Ishii H, Okada T, Shibayama S, Fukushima M, Sekikawa M, Shimada K. 2011; Utilization of adzuki bean extract as a natural antioxidant in cured and uncured cooked pork sausages. Meat Sci. 89:150-153

52.

Jayawardana BC, Liyanage R, Lalantha N, Iddamalgoda S, Weththasinghe P. 2015; Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves in herbal chicken sausages. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 64:1204-1208

53.

Jia N, Kong B, Liu Q, Diao X, Xia X. 2012; Antioxidant activity of black currant (Ribes nigrum L. extract and its inhibitory effect on lipid and protein oxidation of pork patties during chilled storage. Meat Sci. 91:533-539

54.

Jin SK, Choi JS, Jeong JY, Kim GD. 2016; The effect of clove bud powder at a spice level on antioxidant and quality properties of emulsified pork sausage during cold storage. J Sci Food Agric. 96:4089-4097

55.

Jongberg S, Skov SH, Tørngren MA, Skibsted LH, Lund MN. 2011; Effect of white grape extract and modified atmosphere packaging on lipid and protein oxidation in chill stored beef patties. Food Chem. 128:276-283

56.

Jongberg S, Tørngren MA, Gunvig A, Skibsted LH, Lund MN. 2013; Effect of green tea or rosemary extract on protein oxidation in Bologna type sausages prepared from oxidatively stressed pork. Meat Sci. 93:538-546

57.

Jully KMM, Toto CS, Were L. 2016; Antioxidant effect of spent, ground, and lyophilized brew from roasted coffee in frozen cooked pork patties. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 66:244-251

58.

Kanatt SR, Chander R, Sharma A. 2010; Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extract improves the shelf life of chicken products. Int J Food Sci Technol. 45:216-222

59.

Karre L, Lopez K, Getty KJK. 2013; Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Meat Sci. 94:220-227

60.

Khokhar S, Owusu Apenten RK. 2003; Iron binding characteristics of phenolic compounds: Some tentative structure–activity relations. Food Chem. 81:133-140

61.

Kim HS, Chin KB. 2017; Evaluation of antioxidative activity of various levels of ethanol extracted tomato powder and application to pork patties. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 37:242-253

62.

Kim HW, Hwang KE, Song DH, Kim YJ, Ham YK, Lim YB, Jeong TJ, Choi YS, Kim CJ. 2015; Wheat fiber colored with a safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) red pigment as a natural colorant and antioxidant in cooked sausages. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 64:350-355

63.

Kim SJ, Cho AR, Han J. 2013; Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leafy green vegetable extracts and their applications to meat product preservation. Food Control. 29:112-120

64.

Kim SJ, Min SC, Shin HJ, Lee YJ, Cho AR, Kim SY, Han J. 2013; Evaluation of the antioxidant activities and nutritional properties of ten edible plant extracts and their application to fresh ground beef. Meat Sci. 93:715-722

65.

Ko CY, Lai YJ, Zeng YM, Lin RH, Deng JR, Chiou RYY, Wu SC. 2018; Stilbenes: A potential preservative for sausage products. J Food Process Preserv. 42e13456

66.

Kong B, Zhang H, Xiong YL. 2010; Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action. Meat Sci. 85:772-778

67.

Kulkarni S, De Santos FA, Kattamuri S, Rossi SJ, Brewer MS. 2011; Effect of grape seed extract on oxidative, color and sensory stability of a pre-cooked, frozen, re-heated beef sausage model system. Meat Sci. 88:139-144

68.

Kumar P, Kumar S, Tripathi MK, Mehta N, Ranjan R, Bhat ZF, Singh PK. 2013; Flavonoids in the development of functional meat products: A review. Vet World. 6:573-578

69.

Kumar Y, Yadav DN, Ahmad T, Narsaiah K. 2015; Recent trends in the use of natural antioxidants for meat and meat products. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 14:796-812

70.

Kurćubić VS, Mašković PZ, Vujić JM, Vranić DV, Vesković-Moračanin SM, Okanović ĐG, Lilić SV. 2014; Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Kitaibelia vitifolia extract as alternative to the added nitrite in fermented dry sausage. Meat Sci. 97:459-467

71.

Lara MS, Gutierrez JI, Timón M, Andrés AI. 2011; Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP. Meat Sci. 88:481-488

72.

Lee MA, Choi JH, Choi YS, Han DJ, Kim HY, Shim SY, Chung HK, Kim CJ. 2010; The antioxidative properties of mustard leaf (Brassica juncea) kimchi extracts on refrigerated raw ground pork meat against lipid oxidation. Meat Sci. 84:498-504

73.

Lim DG, Choi KS, Kim JJ, Nam KC. 2013; Effects of Salicornia herbacea powder on quality traits of sun-dried Hanwoo beef jerky during storage. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 33:205-213

74.

Lim DG, Kim JJ, Seo KS, Nam KC. 2012; Effect of natural antioxidant extracted from Citrus junos Seib. or Prunus mume on the quality traits of sun-dried Hanwoo beef jerky. Korean J Agric Sci. 39:243-253

75.

Liu DC, Tsau RT, Lin YC, Jan SS, Tan FJ. 2009; Effect of various levels of rosemary or Chinese mahogany on the quality of fresh chicken sausage during refrigerated storage. Food Chem. 117:106-113

76.

Liu F, Dai R, Zhu J, Li X. 2010; Optimizing color and lipid stability of beef patties with a mixture design incorporating with tea catechins, carnosine, and α-tocopherol. J Food Eng. 98:170-177

77.

Liu F, Xu Q, Dai R, Ni Y. 2015; Effects of natural antioxidants on colour stability, lipid oxidation and metmyoglobin reducing activity in raw beef patties. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 14:37-44

78.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. 2010; Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 4:118-126

79.

Lorenzo JM, González-Rodríguez RM, Sánchez M, Amado IR, Franco D. 2013; Effects of natural (grape seed and chestnut extract) and synthetic antioxidants (buthylatedhydroxytoluene, BHT) on the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of dry cured sausage “chorizo”. Food Res Int. 54:611-620

80.

Luo A, Feng J, Hu B, Lv J, Chen CYO, Xie S. 2017; Polysaccharides in spirulina platensis improve antioxidant capacity of Chinese-style sausage. J Food Sci. 82:2591-2597

81.

Mariem C, Sameh M, Nadhem S, Soumaya Z, Najiba Z, Raoudha EG. 2014; Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracts from Nitraria retusa fruits and their applications to meat product preservation. Ind Crops Prod. 55:295-303

82.

Mathew S, Abraham TE. 2006; Studies on the antioxidant activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark extracts, through various in vitro models. Food Chem. 94:520-528

83.

Mbah CJ, Orabueze I, Okorie NH. 2019; Antioxidants properties of natural and synthetic chemical compounds: Therapeutic effects on biological system. Acta Sci Pharm Sci. 3:28-42

84.

Mercadante AZ, Capitani CD, Decker EA, Castro IA. 2010; Effect of natural pigments on the oxidative stability of sausages stored under refrigeration. Meat Sci. 84:718-726

85.

Mitterer-daltoé M, Bordim J, Lise C, Breda L, Casagrande M, Lima V. 2020 Consumer awareness of food antioxidants. synthetic vs. natural. Food Sci Technol. (in press)

86.

Mohamed HMH, Mansour HA. 2012; Incorporating essential oils of marjoram and rosemary in the formulation of beef patties manufactured with mechanically deboned poultry meat to improve the lipid stability and sensory attributes. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 45:79-87

87.

Mohd-Esa N, Hern FS, Ismail A, Yee CL. 2010; Antioxidant activity in different parts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extracts and potential exploitation of the seeds. Food Chem. 122:1055-1060

88.

Muchuweti M, Kativu E, Mupure CH, Chidewe C, Ndhlala AR, Benhura MAN. 2007; Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of some spices. Am J Food Technol. 2:414-420

89.

Munekata PES, Calomeni AV, Rodrigues CEC, Fávaro-Trindade CS, Alencar SM, Trindade MA. 2015; Peanut skin extract reduces lipid oxidation in cooked chicken patties. Poult Sci. 94:442-446

90.

Naveena BM, Sen AR, Kingsly RP, Singh DB, Kondaiah N. 2008a; Antioxidant activity of pomegranate rind powder extract in cooked chicken patties. Int J Food Sci Technol. 43:1807-1812

91.

Naveena BM, Sen AR, Vaithiyanathan S, Babji Y, Kondaiah N. 2008b; Comparative efficacy of pomegranate juice, pomegranate rind powder extract and BHT as antioxidants in cooked chicken patties. Meat Sci. 80:1304-1308

92.

Ng TB, Liu F, Wang ZT. 2000; Antioxidative activity of natural products from plants. Life Sci. 66:709-723

93.

Nuñez de Gonzalez MT, Hafley BS, Boleman RM, Miller RM, Rhee KS, Keeton JT. 2009; Qualitative effects of fresh and dried plum ingredients on vacuum-packaged, sliced hams. Meat Sci. 83:74-81

94.

Oh HJ, Song MH, Yun W, Lee JH, An JS, Kim YJ, Kim GM, Kim HB, Cho JH. 2020; Effects of replacing soybean meal with perilla seed meal on growth performance, and meat quality of broilers. J Anim Sci Technol. 62:495-503

95.

Park JH, Kang SN, Shin D, Hur IC, Kim IS, Jin SK. 2013; Antioxidant activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai extract and its application to the pork sausages. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 26:287-294

96.

Park SY, Chin KB. 2010; Evaluation of pre-heating and extraction solvents in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of garlic, and their application in fresh pork patties. Int J Food Sci Technol. 45:365-373

97.

Pennington JAT, Fisher RA. 2009; Classification of fruits and vegetables. J Food Compos Anal. 22:S23-S31

98.

Pennisi Forell SC, Ranalli N, Zaritzky NE, Andrés SC, Califano AN. 2010; Effect of type of emulsifiers and antioxidants on oxidative stability, colour and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers enriched with unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols. Meat Sci. 86:364-370

99.

Pereira ALF, Abreu VKG. 2018; Lipid peroxidation in meat and meat products. In Lipid peroxidation. In: Mansour MA, editor.(ed)IntechOpen. London, UK: pp p. 531-633.

100.

Pikul J, Leszczynski DE, Kummerow FA. 1984; Relative role of phospholipids, triacylglycerols, and cholesterol esters on malonaldehyde formation in fat extracted from chicken meat. J Food Sci. 49:704-708

101.

Pokorný J. 2007; Are natural antioxidants better – and safer – than synthetic antioxidants?. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. 109:629-642

102.

Puangsombat K, Jirapakkul W, Smith JS. 2011; Inhibitory activity of Asian spices on heterocyclic amines formation in cooked beef patties. J Food Sci. 76:T174-T180

103.

Qin YY, Zhang ZH, Li L, Xiong W, Shi JY, Zhao TR, Fan J. 2013; Antioxidant effect of pomegranate rind powder extract, pomegranate juice, and pomegranate seed powder extract as antioxidants in raw ground pork meat. Food Sci Biotechnol. 22:1063-1069

104.

Ramachandraiah K, Chin KB. 2018; Effect of particle size of persimmon by-product powders on their physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities in porcine patties. J Food Process Eng. 41e12610

105.

Reddy GVB, Sen AR, Nair PN, Reddy KS, Reddy KK, Kondaiah N. 2013; Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices. Meat Sci. 95:288-294

106.

Ribeiro JS, Santos MJMC, Silva LKR, Pereira LCL, Santos IA, da Silva Lannes SC, da Silva MV. 2019; Natural antioxidants used in meat products: A brief review. Meat Sci. 148:181-188

107.

Saha J, Debnath M, Saha A, Ghosh T, Sarkar PK. 2011; Response surface optimisation of extraction of antioxidants from strawberry fruit, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential of the fruit extract in cooked chicken patties. J Sci Food Agric. 91:1759-1765

108.

Sánchez-Escalante A, Torrescano G, Djenane D, Beltrán JA, Giménez B, Roncalés P. 2011; Effect of antioxidants and lighting conditions on color and lipid stability of beef patties packaged in high-oxygen modified atmosphere. Efecto de los antioxidantes y las condiciones de iluminación sobre el color y la estabilidad de los lípidos de hamburguesas de res envasadas en atmósfera modificada alta en oxígeno. CyTA-J Food. 9:49-57

109.

Sasse A, Colindres P, Brewer MS. 2009; Effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of cooked, frozen pork patties. J Food Sci. 74:S30-S35

110.

Sáyago-Ayerdi SG, Brenes A, Goñi I. 2009; Effect of grape antioxidant dietary fiber on the lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken hamburgers. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 42:971-976

111.

Sayari N, Sila A, Balti R, Abid E, Hajlaoui K, Nasri M, Bougatef A. 2015; Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Citrus paradisi barks extracts during turkey sausage formulation and storage. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol. 4:616-623

112.

Shah MA, Bosco SJD, Mir SA. 2014; Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. Meat Sci. 98:21-33

113.

Shahidi F, Ambigaipalan P. 2015; Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: Antioxidant activity and health effects: A review. J Funct Foods. 18:820-897

114.

Shin DK, Yang HS, Min BR, Narciso-Gaytán C, Sanchez-Plata MX, Ruiz-Feria CA. 2011; Evaluation of antioxidant effects of vitamins C and E alone and in combination with sorghum bran in a cooked and stored chicken sausage. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 31:693-700

115.

Sottero B, Leonarduzzi G, Testa G, Gargiulo S, Poli G, Biasi F. 2019; Lipid oxidation derived aldehydes and oxysterols between health and disease. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. 121:1700047

116.

Suman SP, Joseph P. 2013; Myoglobin chemistry and meat color. Ann Rev Food Sci Technol. 4:79-99

117.

Sun WQ, Zhang YJ, Zhou GH, Xu XL, Peng ZQ. 2010; Effect of apple polyphenol on oxidative stability of sliced cooked cured beef and pork hams during chilled storage. J Muscle Foods. 21:722-737

118.

Tajik H, Farhangfar A, Moradi M, Razavi Rohani SM. 2014; Effectiveness of clove essential oil and grape seed extract combination on microbial and lipid oxidation characteristics of raw buffalo patty during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature. J Food Process Preserv. 38:31-38

119.

Thomas R, Jebin N, Saha R, Sarma DK. 2016; Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets. Food Chem. 190:41-49

120.

Trindade RA, Mancini-Filho J, Villavicencio ALCH. 2010; Natural antioxidants protecting irradiated beef burgers from lipid oxidation. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 43:98-104

121.

Tsoukalas DS, Katsanidis E, Marantidou S, Bloukas JG. 2011; Effect of freeze-dried leek powder (FDLP) and nitrite level on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages. Meat Sci. 87:140-145

122.

Turkmen N, Sari F, Velioglu YS. 2006; Effects of extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of black and black mate tea polyphenols determined by ferrous tartrate and Folin–Ciocalteu methods. Food Chem. 99:835-841

123.

Vargas-Sánchez RD, Torrescano-Urrutia GR, Acedo-Félix E, Carvajal-Millán E, González-Córdova AF, Vallejo-Galland B, Torres-Llanez MJ, Sánchez-Escalante A. 2014; Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of commercial propolis extract in beef patties. J Food Sci. 79:C1499-C1504

124.

Xu Z, Tang M, Li Y, Liu F, Li X, Dai R. 2010; Antioxidant properties of Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. extracts and their effects on color stability and lipid oxidation of raw pork patties. J Agric Food Chem. 58:7289-7296

125.

Ye L, Wang H, Duncan SE, Eigel WN, O’Keefe SF. 2015; Antioxidant activities of Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract and its major component dihydromyricetin in soybean oil and cooked ground beef. Food Chem. 172:416-422

126.

Yıldız-Turp G, Serdaroglu M. 2010; Effects of using plum puree on some properties of low fat beef patties. Meat Sci. 86:896-900

127.

Yim D-G, Ali M, Nam K-C. 2020; Comparison of meat quality traits in salami added by nitrate-free salts or nitrate pickling salt during ripening. Food Sci Anim Resour. 40:11-20

128.

Yu J, Ahmedna M, Goktepe I. 2010; Potential of peanut skin phenolic extract as antioxidative and antibacterial agent in cooked and raw ground beef. Int J Food Sci Technol. 45:1337-1344

129.

Zhou H, Zhuang X, Zhou C, Ding D, Li C, Bai Y, Zhou G. 2020; Effect of fermented blueberry on the oxidative stability and volatile molecule profiles of emulsion-type sausage during refrigerated storage. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 33:812-824

Journal Title Change

The name of the journal has been changed from Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources to Food Science of Animal Resources from January 2019.

Clarivate Analytics, which manages SCIE, acknowledges that the journal has been renamed, and below is a screenshot of the journal name change in Journal Citation Reports.

Thank you for your interest in our journal.




Download Screenshot
I don't want to open this window for a day.