Effects of natural extract mixtures on the quality characteristics of sausages during refrigerated storage

Seung-Hye Woo1,, Min Kyung Park1,, Min-Cheol Kang1, Tae-Kyung Kim1, Yea-Ji Kim1, Dong-Min Shin1, Su-Kyung Ku1, Heejin Park1, Heeyoung Lee2, Jung-Min Sung1,*, Yun-Sang Choi1,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Research Group of Food Processing, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju 55365, Korea.
2Food Standard Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju 55365, Korea

† These authors contributed equally to this work.

*Corresponding Author: Jung-Min Sung. E-mail:
*Corresponding Author: Yun-Sang Choi. E-mail:

© Copyright 2023 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Aug 07, 2023 ; Revised: Sep 18, 2023 ; Accepted: Oct 05, 2023

Published Online: Oct 23, 2023


Owing to the residual toxicity and adverse health effects of chemical preservatives, there is an increasing demand for using natural preservatives in food. Although many natural extracts have been evaluated, research on their antibacterial effects remains insufficient. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the possibility of developing Psidium guajava, Ecklonia cava, and Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe & Takeda extracts as natural food preservatives. Further, the effect of mixing these extracts on microbial growth and quality was evaluated during the refrigeration of sausages. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against three pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli). The optimal mixing ratios were determined based on the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of each mixed extract. D-optimal mixing design optimization tool was further used to obtain an optimum mixing ratio of Formulation 1 (F1). The antibacterial activity of F1 increased with increasing concentration, with similar activities at 0.5 and 1%. The sausages with synthetic or natural preservatives showed significantly lower lipid oxidation than those of the control and grapefruit extract-treated sausages after 4 weeks of storage. Total plate counts were observed only in the control and treatment group stored for 3 weeks. Compared to the other samples, sausages with added natural extracts showed the highest overall acceptability scores initially and after 4 weeks. Therefore, similar amounts of grapefruit seed and natural extracts had the same effect on microbiological analysis and lipid rancidity during sausage storage. Hence, this mixture can serve as a potential natural preservative in meat products.

Keywords: preservative; natural extract; sausage; microorganism; antimicrobial activity