Detection, Characterization and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in Meat Products

Karlo Muratoglu1, Esra AKKAYA1,*, Hamparsun Hampikyan2, Enver Baris Bingol1, Omer Cetin1, Hilal Colak1
Author Information & Copyright
1Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, İstanbul 34500, Turkey.
2Beykent University, İstanbul 34500, Turkey.
*Corresponding Author: Esra AKKAYA, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, İstanbul 34500, Turkey. E-mail:

© Copyright 2020 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Jan 23, 2020 ; Revised: Mar 26, 2020 ; Accepted: Apr 14, 2020

Published Online: May 07, 2020


Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is a Gram (+), anaerobic, spore forming, rod shaped bacterium that can produce toxin. The objective of this study is to reveal the presence of C. difficile in meat products, to analyze the ribotype diversity by PCR and to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of isolated strains. The bacterium was isolated in 22 out of 319 (6.9%) examined meat product samples and 9 out of 22 (40.9%) isolates were identified as RT027 and all isolates had the ability of toxin production. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility, all isolates were susceptive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline and vancomycin and 21 (95.4%) isolates to metronidazole. On the other hand, imipenem and cefotaxim resistance was observed in all. In conclusion, the results of this comprehensive study conducted in Turkey deduced the presence of C. difficile in different meat products. Therefore, these products can be evaluated as a potential contamination source of C. difficile from animals to humans especially for elders, youngsters, long terms wide spectrum antibiotic used and immuno-suppressed individuals.

Keywords: C. difficile; meat products; ribotype; antibiotic susceptibility; C. difficile toxin

Journal Title Change

We announce that the title of our journal and related information were changed as below from January, 2019.


Before (~2018.12)

After (2019.01~)

Journal Title

Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources

Food Science of Animal Resources

Journal Abbreviation

Korean J. Food Sci. An.

Food Sci. Anim. Resour.







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