Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of hybrid flexitarian pork loin steak combined with different plant ingredients

AMM Nurul Alam1, Eun-Yeong Lee1, Md. Jakir Hossain1, So-Hee Kim1, Chan-Jin Kim1, Young-Hwa Hwang2, Seon-Tea Joo1,2,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Four), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.
2 Institute of Agriculture & Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: Seon-Tea Joo. E-mail:

© Copyright 2024 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Mar 26, 2024 ; Revised: May 13, 2024 ; Accepted: May 17, 2024

Published Online: May 22, 2024


This study intended to assess the impacts of the following plant ingredients as treatment named 2.5% alginate paste (TAG), carrot (TRC), red cabbage (TCA), Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) (TCP), and included in pork loin meat to produce hybrid meat steak (HBM) to provide healthy meat products suitable for the flexitarian consumers. Plant ingredients were added to the treatment groups at 30%. Results illustrate that HBM steaks had higher (p<0.05) moisture content than HBM steaks. In raw HBM steaks an increased (p<0.05) pH, lightness (CIE L*), and redness (CIE a*) than pork steak. Pork steak and TCP demonstrated the highest (p<0.05) cooking loss (CL) followed by TRC, TCA, and TAG, whereas, TRC and TCA had higher (p<0.05) releasing water content (RW) followed by pork, TCP, and TAG. HBM steaks demonstrated a lower (p<0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) value than pork steaks. According to the sensory panel Pork steak and TAG had overall higher acceptance (p<0.05) followed by TRC, TCP, and least for TCA, which was suggested as especially suitable for the elderly or kids. The electronic tongue system (ETS) revealed higher (p<0.05) umami intensity and bitterness in HBM steaks than in pork steak. The richness value was higher in pork steak followed by TAG, TCP, and TRC, and lowest in TCA. Therefore, the current study demonstrated that plant ingredients can successfully be incorporated into pork loin to make suitable flexitarian steak to keep eating meat but in a lower concentration.

Keywords: Hybrid meat; Flexitarian steak; Plant ingredients; Physicochemical; Sensory