3D printing of materials and printing parameters with animal resources: A review

Eun Young Jeon1, Yuri Kim1, Hyun-Jung Yun1, Bum-Keun Kim1,2, Yun-Sang Choi1,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Research Group of Food Processing, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju 55365, Korea.
2Department of Food Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Korea
*Corresponding Author: Yun-Sang Choi. E-mail:

© Copyright 2023 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Oct 03, 2023 ; Revised: Nov 10, 2023 ; Accepted: Nov 13, 2023

Published Online: Nov 14, 2023


3D printing technology enables the production of creative and personalized food products that meet consumer needs, such as an attractive visual appearance, fortification of specific nutrients, and modified textures. To popularize and diversify 3D-printed foods, an evaluation of the printing feasibility of various food pastes, including materials that cannot be printed natively, is necessary. Most animal resources, such as meat, milk, and eggs, are not inherently printable; therefore, the rheological properties governing printability should be improved through pre-/posttreatment or adding appropriate additives. This review provides the latest progress in extrusion-based 3D printing of animal resource-based inks. In addition, this review discusses the effects of ink composition, printing conditions, and postprocessing on the printing performance and characteristics of printed constructs. Further research is required to enhance the sensory quality and nutritional and textural properties of animal resource-based printed foods.

Keywords: 3D printing; Animal resource; Meat; Rheology; textural properties