A review on camel milk composition, techno-functional properties and processing constraints

Muhammad Asif Arain1,2,*, Hafiz Muhammad Salma3, Mehboob Ali3, Gul Bahar Khaskheli1, Ghulam Shabir Barham1, Illahi Bakhash Marghazani2, Shabir Ahmed1
Author Information & Copyright
1Faculty of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Tandojam, Pakistan
2Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, 3800, Uthal, Balochistan, Pakistan
3Rural Health Center Shaher Farid, Chishtian, Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Pakistan
4Rural Health Center Akhtarabad, District Oakara, Punjab, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Muhammad Asif Arain, Faculty of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Tandojam, Pakistan., Tandojam 90150, Pakistan. Lasbela University of Agriculture Water and Marine Sciences , Uthal 90150, Pakistan. E-mail:

© Copyright 2023 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Apr 03, 2023 ; Revised: Apr 21, 2023 ; Accepted: Apr 24, 2023

Published Online: Jun 08, 2023


Camel milk plays a critical role in the diet of peoples belongs to the semi-arid and arid regions. Since the prehistoric time the marketing of camel milk was limited owing to lacking the processing facilities in the camel rearing areas, so the self-consumption of raw and fermented camel milk was practiced by nomads. A better understanding of the techno-functional properties of camel milk is required for product improvement to address market and customer needs. Despite the superior nutraceutical and health promoting potential, limited camel dairy products are available compare to other bovines. It is a challenging impetus for dairy industry to provide diversified camel dairy products to the consumers with superior nutritional and functional qualities. The physicochemical behavior and characteristics of camel milk is different than the bovine milk, which poses the processing and technological challenges. Traditionally camel milk is only processed into various fermented and non-fermented products, however, the production of commercially important dairy products (cheese, butter, yogurt and milk powder) from camel milk has not been processed successfully. Therefore, the industrial processing and transformation of camel milk into various products including fermented dairy products, pasteurized milk, milk powder, cheese and other products requires the development of new technologies based on applied research. This review highlights the processing constraints and techno-functional properties of camel milk while presenting the challenges associated with the processing of milk into various dairy products and future research directions to improve the product quality have also discussed.

Keywords: Camel milk; dairy products; nutritional value; techno-functional properties; processing constraints