Effects of Nitrite and Phosphate Replacements for Clean-Label Ground Pork Products

Jiye Yoon1, Su Min Bae1, Jong Youn Jeong1,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Food Science & Biotechnology, Kyungsung University, Busan 48434, Korea
*Corresponding Author: Jong Youn Jeong, Department of Food Science & Biotechnology, Kyungsung University, Busan 48434, Korea. Phone: +82-51-663-4711. E-mail:

© Copyright 2022 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Sep 22, 2022 ; Revised: Nov 18, 2022 ; Accepted: Nov 22, 2022

Published Online: Nov 24, 2022


We investigated the effects of different phosphate replacements on the quality of ground pork products cured with sodium nitrite or radish powder to determine their potential for achieving clean-label pork products. The experimental design was a 2 × 5 factorial design. For this purpose, the ground meat mixture was assigned into two groups, depending on nitrite source. Each group was mixed with 0.01% sodium nitrite or 0.4% radish powder together with 0.04% starter culture, and then processed depending on phosphate replacement (with or without 0.5% sodium tripolyphosphate; STPP (+), STPP (−), 0.5% oyster shell calcium (OSC), 0.5% citrus fiber (CF), or 0.5% dried plum powder (DPP)). All samples were cooked, cooled, and stored until analysis within two days. The nitrite source had no effect on all dependent variables of ground pork products. However, in phosphate replacement treatments, the STPP (+) and OSC treatments had a higher cooking yield than the STPP (−), CF, or DPP treatments. OSC treatment was more effective for lowering total fluid separation compared to STPP (−), CF, or DPP treatments, but had a higher percentage than STPP (+). The STPP (+) treatment did not differ from the OSC or CF treatments for CIE L* and CIE a* values. Moreover, no differences were observed in nitrosyl hemochrome content, lipid oxidation, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness between the OSC and STPP (+) treatments. In conclusion, among the phosphate replacements, OSC addition was the most suitable to provide clean-label pork products cured with radish powder as a synthetic nitrite replacer.

Keywords: nitrite replacement; phosphate replacement; radish powder; pork products; clean-label