The Effects of Addition Timing of NaCl and Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Cooking Rate on Pink Color in Cooked Ground Chicken Breasts
Received: Dec 27, 2019 ; Revised: Jan 10, 2020 ; Accepted: Jan 10, 2020
Published Online: Jan 17, 2020
The current study investigated the effects of timing of NaCl (2%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP, 0.5%) addition and cooking rates on color and pigment properties of ground chicken breasts. Four treatments were tested as follows: treatment 1, no NaCl and STPP added and stored for 7 d; treatment 2, NaCl + STPP added on 0 d and stored for 7 d; treatment 3, NaCl added on 0 d and STPP added on 7 d; and treatment 4, stored for 7 d and NaCl + STPP added. All samples were cooked at a fast (5.67 °C/min) or slow cooking rate (2.16 °C/min). Regardless of the timing of NaCl and STPP addition, reflectance ratios of nitrosyl hemochrome, cooking yield, pH values, oxidation-reduction potential, and percent myoglobin denaturation were similar (p>0.05) across treatments 2, 3, and 4. The highest CIE a* values were observed in treatment 4 (p<0.05), while treatment 2 was effective in reducing the redness in cooked chicken products. The fast cooking rate resulted in lower CIE a* values and higher CIE L* values and cooking yield in cooked chicken breasts compared to the slow cooking rate. Our results indicate that adding NaCl and STPP to meat, followed by storing and cooking at a fast rate, may result in inhibiting the pink color defect sporadically occurred in cooked ground chicken breasts.