Effects of Sous-vide Cooking Temperature on Triceps Brachii of Black Goats

Kyu-Min Kang1, Hack-Youn Kim1,2,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Animal Resources Science, Kongju National University, Yesan 32439, Korea
2Resource Science Research Institute, Kongju National University, Yesan 32439, Korea
*Corresponding author : Hack-Youn Kim, Department of Animal Resources Science, Kongju National University, Yesan 32439, Korea, Tel: +82-41-330-1241, Fax: +82-41-330-1249, E-mail:

© Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Jan 19, 2024 ; Revised: Mar 03, 2024 ; Accepted: Mar 12, 2024

Published Online: Jul 01, 2024


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sous-vide cooking temperature on the triceps brachii of black goats. Triceps brachii of black goats (12 months) were sous-vide cooked at 55°C, 60°C, and 65°C. The samples were examined for color, scanning electron microscope photographs, sarcomere length, fiber cross-sectional area, cooking yield, shear force, sensory evaluation, and aromatic profile. The results showed that CIE a*, CIE b*, and chroma increased with increasing sous-vide cooking temperature. However, the cooking yield significantly decreased with increasing sous-vide cooking temperature, and the shear forces of the 60°C and 65°C samples showed no significant differences. For sensory evaluation, the 60°C sample showed the highest scores for flavor, texture, and off-flavor. Furthermore, the 60°C sample showed the significantly lowest value of octadienone (aroma characteristics of metallic) intensity (p<0.05). Therefore, sous-vide cooking of triceps brachii of black goats at 60°C is effective in reducing off-flavor and improving tenderness.

Keywords: black goat; sous-vide; texture properties; sensory properties


Goats (Carpra hircus) are ruminant livestock that produce a variety of consumer products, such as meat, milk, hides, and cashmere (Gu et al., 2022). Moreover, as the Asian population has increased, the consumption of goat meats is also increased and this phenomenon is considered to present a great opportunity for the continuous growth of goat meat demand (LaRoche et al., 2022). Black goats (Capra hircus Linnaeus) are generally raised in warm climate regions such as South Asia, Africa, and South America (Guan et al., 2016). Black goats can be raised in rough terrains such as mountainous terrain, and the high efficiency of fibrin decomposition in the rumen aid the utilization of tough and low-nutrient grasses, which are available (Chung et al., 2021; Nair et al., 2021). In addition, compared to other main meat resources, there are no religious restrictions; they have similar protein content and higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and iron; thus, their potential value as a meat resource is superior (Lalhriatpuii and Singh, 2021).

The main reasons for the low consumption of black goat meat are its peculiar off-flavor and tough texture (Rhee et al., 2003). Especially its peculiar off-flavor is influenced by the goat meat’s volatile composition and this impacts the olfactory attributes that consumers readily associate with goat meat (Adam, 2022). Off-flavor and tenderness affect consumer preference and are properties that are mainly improved in meat (Font-i-Furnols and Guerrero, 2014). Accordingly, various processing methods have been studied to improve the flavor and tenderness of meat (Gómez et al., 2020). Sous-vide cooking is a trendy meat processing method that improves flavor and tenderness by pretreating vacuum-packed meat in low-temperature boiling water (Kathuria et al., 2022). Through sous-vide cooking, the tenderization of meat has been attributed to the retention of water, reduced denaturation of proteins, and weakening of connective tissue by collagen solubilization (Naqvi et al., 2021b). Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of sous-vide cooking temperature on black goat meat to reduce its off-flavor and improve tenderness.

Materials and Methods

Preparation of sous-vide black goat meat

The triceps brachii of black goats’ meat (Capra hircus Linnaeus, breed: black Korean goat×boer goat, 12 months) refrigerated for 24 h after slaughter were purchased from Gaon (Gangjin, Korea). The triceps brachii were cold transported to the laboratory within 10 h and used after getting rid of unnecessary tissue (connective tissues and excessive fat) on the muscle surface. For experiment, triceps brachii were collected from 15 carcasses, severed at 190–210 g, and then grouped into three groups with vacuum sealing. They were randomly cooked each at 55°C, 60°C, and 65°C water bath for 90 min. The sous-vide cooking temperatures were determined according to the study of Ismail et al. (2022). After cooking, the samples were cooled in an ice bath for 20 min and used in the experiments.


The core cutting surfaces of the samples were determined using a colorimeter at room temperature. Subsequently, the parameters of CIE L*, CIE a*, and CIE b* were recorded prior to sample measurements. Hue angle and chroma values were computed by applying the following formula:

Hue angle = tan 1 CIE value of CIE b* CIE value of CIE a*
Chroma = [ ( CIE value of CIE a* ) 2 + ( CIE value of CIE b* ) 2 ] 1 2

The colorimeter was adjusted to operate with a pulsed xenon lamp as a default light source, 2° standard observer, aperture of 8 mm, and illuminant D65. The white plate (CR-10, Minolta, Tokyo, Japan) with the following color values: CIE L*: +97.83; CIE a*: –0.43; and CIE b*: +1.98 was used for calibration of the colorimeter.

Microstructure, fiber cross-sectional area, and sarcomere length

The samples were cut, based on the orientation of muscle fiber, on flat surface (1×1×1 cm3) and stored at –85°C deep freezer. The frozen samples were sliced into 10 μm at –25°C using a cryostat cryocut microtome (CM3050S, Leica, Wetzlar, Germany), and the sarcomere length and microstructure were then observed using a high-resolution field emission scanning microscope (MIRA3-LM, Tesan, Klíčany, Czech Republic). The fiber cross-sectional area was observed using a laser confocal scanning microscope (ZEISS LSM 800, ZEISS, Jena, Germany).

Cooking yield

The cooking yield of the samples was analyzed by weighing the samples before and after cooking. Samples’ cooking condition was convection, 60 min, with core temperature 72±1°C and cooked samples were cooled at room temperature for 20 min. The cooking yield was computed from these weights by applying the following formula:

Cooking yield ( % ) = Sample weight after cooking ( g ) Sample weight before cooking ( g ) × 100
Shear force

The shear force was analyzed with cube-shaped samples (sample size: 1×1×1 cm3) utilizing a texture analyzer (TA 1, Lloyd, Largo, FL, USA). The analysis conditions of the machine were as follows: V-blade with a distance of 22.0 mm; test speed of 21.0 mm/s; a head speed of 21.0 mm/s; a force of 5.6 N. Analyzed values are presented in Newton (N).

Sensory evaluation

The sensory evaluation method employed in this study received approval from the Ethics Committee of Kongju National University (Authority IRB No: KNU 2021-75). The twenty panelists were trained to acquaint themselves with the goat sous-vide sensory properties. The training progressed for 12 d (1 h session per day) with goat meat which is commercially available. After training, the panelists carried out the scores of samples’ sensory evaluation using a 10-point descriptive scale (Table 1).

Table 1. Sensory descriptions of black goat triceps brachii with various temperatures of sous-vide treatment
Scale Sensory descriptions
Color Flavor Texture Juiciness Off-flavor Overall acceptability
UnaccepTable (1) Pale Rancid Firm Dry Very goaty Unedible
AccepTable (10) Brown Umami Soft Moist Undetectable Edible
Download Excel Table
Aromatic profile

Aroma profiles of the samples were obtained using a Heracles II electronic nose (Alpha MOS, Toulouse, France). The conditions of the machine for the analysis were as follows: 5 g of sample weighed in a 20 mL vial; headspace temperature of 60°C; flow rate of 250 mL/min; acquisition time of 120 s; an injection of 2.5 mL of sample. For the principal component analysis (PCA) procedure, the measured sensitivity values were processed with the Alpha software (Alpha MOS). The analyzed aroma profiles were classified, patterned, and recorded as the primary component value (PC1) and secondary component value (PC2).

Statistical analysis

All experimental data in this study were analyzed after a minimum of three repeated trials and the results are expressed as mean, SD, and standard error of the means (SEM). Statistical analyses were verified using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range tests in the SAS program (version 9.3 for window, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) at a significant level of p<0.05. The study employed the General Linear Model of ANOVA to assess potential differences in color, fiber cross-sectional area, sarcomere length, cooking yield, shear force, sensory evaluation, and aromatic profile measurements of the triceps brachii muscle in black goats subjected to various sous-vide temperatures.

Results and Discussion


Table 2 shows the color values of the triceps brachii of black goats at various sous-vide temperatures. The CIE L* of the 60°C sample was significantly higher than that of the other samples (p<0.05). Alahakoon et al. (2018) reported that decreasing trends in CIE L* of beef muscle were observed in the temperature range of 60°C, 65°C, and 70°C, which is similar to our results. The high sous-vide cooking temperature that inflicts on the protein, increases the protein denaturation process and this process causes the increase of CIE L* (Hasani et al., 2022). However, Ismail et al. (2022) reported that changes in CIE L* are affected by many factors such as muscle type, pH, cooking time, free water, temperature, etc., and that causes lots of varied results that conclude meaningless predict changes in CIE L*. The CIE a* and CIE b* of the 65°C sample were significantly higher than those of the other samples (p<0.05). As the thermal process progresses, myoglobin, a pigment protein, starts to denature at temperatures between 55°C and 65°C (Noh et al., 2023). With increasing temperature, denaturation continues to escalate. The denaturation of myoglobin starts at over 60°C and color properties change to gray-ish-dull brown at 65°C (Ismail et al., 2022). The hue angles of the 55°C and 60°C samples were significantly higher than that of the 65°C sample (p<0.05). The chroma of the 65°C sample was significantly higher than those of the other samples (p<0.05). Hue angle and chroma are influenced by CIE a* and CIE b* and have a correlation (Sun et al., 2019). In sous-vide cooking, myoglobin undergoes slow denaturation because of the absence of oxygen during heating; hence, most muscle fibers exist in the form of deoxymyoglobin (Modzelewska-Kapituła et al., 2022).

Table 2. Color of black goat triceps brachii with various temperatures of sous-vide treatment
Traits 55°C 60°C 65°C SEM
Color CIE L* 52.58b 55.18a 50.24c 0.57
CIE a* 5.42b 5.78b 7.82a 0.29
CIE b* 9.16c 10.12b 10.78a 0.20
Hue angle 59.41a 60.27a 54.02b 0.77
Chroma 10.65c 11.65b 13.32a 0.31

a–c Means in the same row with different letters are significantly different (p<0.05).

SEM, standard error of the means.

Download Excel Table
Scanning electron microscope photograph

Fig. 1 shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM) photograph of the triceps brachii of black goats at various sous-vide temperatures. As shown in Fig. 1, the intensity of the myofibrillar microstructure collapse increased with increasing temperature, corroborating the research by Yin et al. (2020) who reported that the intensity of sarcomere structure collapse increases with increasing temperature in sous-vide cooked beef semimembranosus. The changes in sarcomeres into the wavy formation may be due to vacuum and temperature which brings irreversible changes in the structure of the I-bands (Chian et al., 2021a). Conformational changes such as general denaturation with shrinkage in structural proteins, such as titin, perform a role in the structural integrity of myofibrils during heating, which may be one of the reasons for the observed collapse of the myofibrillar structure (Zhu et al., 2018). Furthermore, the activity of endogenous proteolytic enzyme is encouraged by warmer temperatures and it breaks down the myofibrillar structure faster and finally makes the texture softer (Uttaro et al., 2019). As the results shown, at a temperature of 60°C or above, both longitudinal and transverse shrinkage of muscle fibers occur and these can affect the texture profiles of meat in a positive way.

Fig. 1. SEM photograph of black goat triceps brachii with various temperatures of sous-vide treatment (bar=10 μm). SEM, scanning electron microscope.
Download Original Figure
Fiber cross-sectional area, sarcomere length, cooking yield, and shear force

Table 3 shows the fiber cross-sectional area, sarcomere length, cooking yield, and shear force of the triceps brachii of black goats at various sous-vide temperatures. The muscle fiber cross-sectional area of the 60°C sample was significantly lower than those of the other samples (p<0.05). This result is in agreement with that of Supaphon et al. (2021) who reported that quantitative histological parameters indicated that the fiber cross-sectional area increased with increasing sous-vide heating temperature in the range of 60°C–80°C. The results of the 55°C samples are due to the sous-vide heat not being enough to change the fiber-cross sectional area and it doesn’t show a huge effect compared to the other temperatures (Anne et al., 2022). The fiber cross-sectional area can be measured by the size of perimysium which is the collagen network surrounding muscle fiber bundles (Yamauchi et al., 2014). Perimysium affects the size of the fiber cross-sectional area of meat and involves connective tissue components that affect meat tenderness upon heating (Li et al., 2019). The perimysium strength first increases in the temperature range of 40°C and 50°C and then later increases between 60°C and 80°C (Ismail et al., 2019).

Table 3. Fiber cross-sectional area, sarcomere length, cooking yield, and shear force of black goat triceps brachii with various temperatures of sous-vide treatment
Traits 55°C 60°C 65°C SEM
Fiber cross-sectional area (μm2) 1,185.87a 635.84c 816.09b 49.88
Sarcomere length (μm) 2.12a 1.23c 1.82b 0.08
Cooking yield (%) 91.34a 88.66b 82.54c 1.43
Shear force (N) 98.86a 66.40b 65.26b 5.63

a–c Means in the same row with different letters are significantly different (p<0.05).

SEM, standard error of the means.

Download Excel Table

A short sarcomere length can commonly be observed in goat meat and the size of length is average at 1.8 μm and it is the goat species’ own characteristics and similar to before cooked sarcomere length (1.86±0.10) is observed in this study (Gawat et al., 2022). The sarcomere length of the 60°C sample was significantly shorter than those of the other samples (p<0.05). According to Palka and Daun (1999), in sous-vide cooked beef semitendinosus, decreasing sarcomere length has a negative correlation with an increasing temperature range of 50°C–60°C. However, since sous-vide cooking involves cooking uniformly at low temperatures, at 65°C, more time is provided for muscle fibers to relax and elongate (Chotigavin et al., 2023). This low-temperature cooking style can affect positively on toughness of the meat and it is the result of the shrinkage of muscle fibers in a transverse direction (Chotigavin et al., 2022). At 40°C–60°C, the myosin heads and helical tails of the myosin molecules denature, reducing the sarcomere length (Purslow et al., 2016), and the denaturation temperatures of the sarcomere length-associated proteins, such as actin filaments, myosin filaments, and nebulin, are mostly higher than 60°C (Chian et al., 2021b). Therefore, sous-vide cooking at 60°C resulted in the lowest fiber cross-sectional area and sarcomere length because of the incomplete denaturation.

The cooking yield showed a significant decreasing trend as the sous-vide temperature increased (p<0.05). The cooking yield is mainly affected by the temperature of heat process; if meat is exposed to high temperatures, exudation of free water leads to reduced product weight and consequently a reduced yield (Przybylski et al., 2021). This phenomenon is affected by the myofibril, which binds most of the water molecules, and their denaturation by heat releases the water and produces muscle shrinkage and weight loss (Ayub and Ahmad, 2019). In particular, the temperature rise attributed to collagen and actin denaturation takes place above 60°C, resulting in muscle fiber shrinkage parallel to the fiber axis, which exudates the free water present between the fibers (Yahya et al., 2021). However, in sous-vide cooking, because of vacuum packaging, it is difficult to lose free water, thus preventing extreme cooking loss (Yang et al., 2021). Vacuum packaging can prevent the exudation of water in the myofibrillar, and also can prevent the evaporation of moisture converted into water vapor (Baldwin, 2012). These complex reactions effect the cooking yields and show the high advantages of the sous-vide cooking method.

The shear force of the 55°C sample was significantly higher than those of the other samples (p<0.05), corroborating the research by Naqvi et al. (2021b) who reported decreasing shear force value in sous-vide cooked beef semitendinosus when the sous-vide temperature increases. This is attributed to the alteration and denaturation of myofibrillar proteins, primarily in the actomyosin complex and connective tissues (Vaudagna et al., 2002). The alteration of myofibrillar proteins and connective tissues begins at 60°C and increases rapidly up to 80°C (Supaphon et al., 2020). Also, the cooking temperature of 60°C is suitable to activate the proteolytic enzymes such as cathepsin B, cathepsin L, and calpain that degrade myofibrillar proteins (Chotigavin et al., 2023). Furthermore, the loss of water from myofibrillar through heating contributes to meat tenderness and as shown in cooking yield, the results of cooking yield show negative corelations with shear force (Roldán et al., 2013). Considering cooking yield and shear force, sous-vide cooking at 60°C is effective to improve the tenderness.

Sensory evaluation

Fig. 2 shows the sensory evaluation of the triceps brachii of black goats at various sous-vide temperatures. For flavor, texture, and off-flavor, the 60°C and 65°C samples were significantly higher than the 55°C sample (p<0.05). Gil et al. (2022) reported that in sous-vide cooking on meat, 60°C appeared positive effect on sensory evaluation through improving appearance, shear force, thermal loss, and texture profile. Texture is mainly affected by enzymatic denaturation of myosin and collagen and as shown in the results of texture profiles (SEM photograph, fiber cross-sectional area, sarcomere length, cooking yield, and shear force) show similar relations along with sensory evaluation (Mortensen et al., 2012). The flavor of meat cooked sous-vide is primarily influenced by the cooking temperature, with lower temperatures resulting in milder flavors (Naqvi et al., 2021a). Flavor can also differ depending on the type of meat and the composition of their volatile compounds, and the intensity of volatilization of the volatile compounds, which exhibits an unpleasant flavor, directly affects consumer preference (Munekata, 2021). Moreover, as the heating temperature increases, the volatilization of volatile compounds such as fatty acids increases, resulting in a stronger flavor inherent in meat (Roldán et al., 2015).

Fig. 2. Sensory evaluation of black goat triceps brachii with various temperatures of sous-vide treatment. a,b Means in the same bars with different letters are significantly different (p<0.05).
Download Original Figure
Aromatic profile

Electronic nose has sensors to detect volatile compounds to predict flavor score from sensory evaluation and it can determine the differences in flavor deeply (Moschini et al., 2018). Figs. 3 and 4 show the aromatic profiles of the triceps brachii of black goats at various sous-vide temperatures. As shown in Fig. 3, PCA plot performed a PC1 of 95.811% and PC2 of 3.405%, suggests that PC1 played a greater role in augmenting the flavor (Kang et al., 2021). Based on PC1 (x-axis), the PCA plot of each sample revealed a difference in flavor component according to distance. As shown in Fig. 4, the flavor compound peaks for acetaldehyde, ethanol, 2-methylbutane, hexane, 2,3-pentanedione, 1-hexen-3-ol, EDB, cyclohexanone, octadienone, 2-octanol, and undecane were detected in all the samples (peaks numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11, respectively). Octadienone is responsible for metallic aroma characteristics, and it is well known that the stronger the metallic flavor, similar to the blood flavor of meat, the stronger the off-flavor can be felt (Blank, 1997). For peak numbered 9, each sample at 55°C, 60°C, and 65°C showed 12,505.74, 8,027.91, and 9,222.71 of octadienone intensity, respectively with significant differences (p<0.05). These occurrences might be attributed to the synchronized reaction or isomerization of octadienone, resulting in the formation of two cyclic compounds in high-temperature conditions (Yang et al., 2020). These results suggest the score differences in sensory evaluation and indicate electronic nose can scientifically support sensory evaluation. Therefore, sous-vide cooking at 60°C reduced off-flavor in black goat triceps brachii.

Fig. 3. Principal component analysis plot of black goat triceps brachii with various temperatures of sous-vide treatment. PC2, secondary component value; PC1, primary component value.
Download Original Figure
Fig. 4. Volatile compunds of black goat triceps brachii with various temperatures of sous-vide treatment. Fig. 4 peaks are reported in order of elution: 1, acetaldehyde; 2, ethanol; 3, 2-methylbutane; 4, hexane; 5, 2,3-pentanedione; 6, 1-hexen-3-ol; 7, EDB; 8, cyclohexanone; 9, octadienone; 10, 2-octanol; 11, undecane. a–c Means in the same peaks with different letters are significantly different (p<0.05).
Download Original Figure


In this study, we investigated the effects of sous-vide cooking temperature on the triceps brachii of black goats. CIE a*, CIE b*, and chroma of 65°C samples showed the highest values compared to those of the other samples. In addition, 60°C samples showed advantages in sarcomere length, fiber cross-sectional area, and shear force. Furthermore, according to the results of sensory evaluation and aroma profile, 60°C samples showed high scores of preference owing to the decrease in off-flavor. Therefore, sous-vide cooking at 60°C can improve the tenderness and flavor of triceps brachii of black goats.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest.


This research was supported by Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ016217) Rural Development Administration, Korea.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: Kim HY. Data curation: Kim HY. Formal analysis: Kang KM. Methodology: Kim HY. Software: Kang KM. Validation: Kim HY. Investigation: Kang KM. Writing - original draft: Kang KM. Writing - review & editing: Kang KM, Kim HY.

Ethics Approval

The sensory evaluation was approved by the Ethics Committee of Kongju National University, Korea (Authority No: KNU_IRB_2021-75).



Adam YSI. 2022; Physiochemical and sensorial properties of burgers produced from Nubian goat meat and beef. J Food Sci. 3:1-9


Alahakoon AU, Oey I, Bremer P, Silcock P. 2018; Optimisation of sous vide processing parameters for pulsed electric fields treated beef briskets. Food Bioprocess Technol. 11:2055-2066


Anne D, Thierry A, Keisuke S, Michiyo M. 2022; Transformation of highly marbled meats under various cooking processes. Meat Sci. 189; :108810


Ayub H, Ahmad A. 2019; Physiochemical changes in sous-vide and conventionally cooked meat. Int J Gastron Food Sci. 17; :100145


Baldwin DE. 2012; Sous vide cooking: A review. Int J Gastron Food Sci. 1:15-30


Blank I. 1997; Gas chromatography–olfactomatry in food aroma analysis. In Techniques for analyzing food aroma. In: Marsili R, editor.(ed)Marcel Dekker. New York, NY, USA: pp p. 293-330


Chian FM, Kaur L, Astruc T, Vénien A, Stübler AS, Aganovic K, Loison O, Hodgkinson S, Boland M. 2021a; Shockwave processing of beef brisket in conjunction with sous vide cooking: Effects on protein structural characteristics and muscle microstructure. Food Chem. 343; :128500


Chian FM, Kaur L, Oey I, Astruc T, Hodgkinson S, Boland M. 2021b; Effects of pulsed electric field processing and sous vide cooking on muscle structure and in vitro protein digestibility of beef brisket. Foods. 10; :512


Chotigavin N, Kerr WL, Klaypradit W, Kerdpiboon S. 2022; Sous-vide meat properties as a function of physical and surface changes during processing. Asia Pac J Sci Technol. 27:APST-27-05-15.


Chotigavin N, Kerr WL, Klaypradit W, Kerdpiboon S. 2023; Novel sous-vide pressure technique affecting properties of local beef muscle. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 175; :114439


Chung SU, Jang Yeong SY, Yun YS, Moon SH. 2021; Effect of Sasa borealis silage feeding on daily gain, digestibility and nitrogen retention in growing black goat. J Korean Soc Grassland Forage Sci. 41:35-40


Font-i-Furnols M, Guerrero L. 2014; Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: An overview. Meat Sci. 98:361-371


Gawat M, Kaur L, Singh J, Boland M. 2022; Physicochemical and quality characteristics of New Zealand goat meat and its ultrastructural features. Food Res Int. 161; :111736


Gil M, Rudy M, Stanisławczyk R, Duma-Kocan P. 2022; Effect of traditional cooking and sous vide heat treatment, cold storage time and muscle on physicochemical and sensory properties of beef meat. Molecules. 27; :7307


Gómez I, Janardhanan R, Ibañez FC, Beriain MJ. 2020; The effects of processing and preservation technologies on meat quality: Sensory and nutritional aspects. Foods. 9; :1416


Gu B, Sun R, Fang X, Zhang J, Zhao Z, Huang D, Zhao Y, Zhao Y. 2022; Genome-wide association study of body conformation traits by whole genome sequencing in Dazu black goats. Animals. 12; :548


Guan D, Luo N, Tan X, Zhao Z, Huang Y, Na R, Zhang J, Zhao Y. 2016; Scanning of selection signature provides a glimpse into important economic traits in goats (Capra hircus). Sci Rep. 6:1-7


Hasani E, Csehi B, Darnay L, Ladányi M, Dalmadi I, Kenesei G. 2022; Effect of combination of time and temperature on quality characteristics of sous vide chicken breast. Foods. 11; :521


Ismail I, Hwang YH, Bakhsh A, Lee SJ, Lee EY, Kim CJ, Joo ST. 2022; Control of sous-vide physicochemical, sensory, and microbial properties through the manipulation of cooking temperatures and times. Meat Sci. 188; :108787


Ismail I, Hwang YH, Joo ST. 2019; Interventions of two-stage thermal sous-vide cooking on the toughness of beef semitendinosus. Meat Sci. 157; :107882


Kang KM, Lee SH, Kim HY. 2021; Quality properties of whole milk powder on chicken breast emulsion-type sausage. J Anim Sci Technol. 63:405-416


Kathuria D, Dhiman AK, Attri S. 2022; Sous vide, a culinary technique for improving quality of food products: A review. Trends Food Sci Technol. 119:57-68


Lalhriatpuii M, Singh AK. 2021 Goat meat: No less source of protein in comparison to other meat for human consumption. In Goat science: Environment, health and economy. In: Kukovics S, editor.(ed)IntechOpen. London, UK: .


LaRoche EM, Wu WJ, Garcia P, Song B, Chun CKY, Jones CK, Crane AR, O’Quinn TG, Chao MD. 2022; Evaluation of skin-on goat meat processing on processing efficiency, carcass yield, meat quality, and sensory attributes. Meat Sci. 184; :108675


Li S, Ma R, Pan J, Lin X, Dong X, Yu C. 2019; Combined effects of aging and low temperature, long time heating on pork toughness. Meat Sci. 150:33-39


Modzelewska-Kapituła M, Tkacz K, Nogalski Z. 2022; The influence of muscle, ageing and thermal treatment method on the quality of cooked beef. J Food Sci Technol. 59:123-132


Mortensen LM, Frøst MB, Skibsted LH, Risbo J. 2012; Effect of time and temperature on sensory properties in low-temperature long-time sous-vide cooking of beef. J Culin Sci Technol. 10:75-90


Moschini M, Sigolo S, Brugiapaglia A, Renna M, Lussiana C, Prandini A. 2018; Use of electronic nose to discriminate meats from bulls fed diet with or without flaxseed inclusion and subjected to different aging periods. Ital J Food Sci. 30:440-455.


Munekata PES. 2021; Improving the sensory, nutritional and physicochemical quality of fresh meat. Foods. 10; :2060


Nair MRR, Sejian V, Silpa MV, Fonsêca VFC, de Melo Costa CC, Devaraj C, Krishnan G, Bagath M, Nameer PO, Bhatta R. 2021; Goat as the ideal climate-resilient animal model in tropical environment: Revisiting advantages over other livestock species. Int J Biometeorol. 65:2229-2240


Naqvi ZB, Thomson PC, Campbell MA, Latif S, Legako JF, McGill DM, Wynn PC, Friend MA, Warner RD. 2021a; Sensory and physical characteristics of M. biceps femoris from older cows using ginger powder (zingibain) and sous vide cooking. Foods. 10; :1936


Naqvi ZB, Thomson PC, Ha M, Campbell MA, McGill DM, Friend MA, Warner RD. 2021b; Effect of sous vide cooking and ageing on tenderness and water-holding capacity of low-value beef muscles from young and older animals. Meat Sci. 175; :108435


Noh SW, Song DH, Ham YK, Yang NE, Kim HW. 2023; Physicochemical properties of chicken breast and thigh as affected by sous-vide cooking conditions. Foods. 12; :2592


Palka K, Daun H. 1999; Changes in texture, cooking losses, and myofibrillar structure of bovine M. semitendinosus during heating. Meat Sci. 51:237-243


Przybylski W, Jaworska D, Kajak-Siemaszko K, Sałek P, Pakuła K. 2021; Effect of heat treatment by the sous-vide method on the quality of poultry meat. Foods. 10; :1610


Purslow PP, Oiseth S, Hughes J, Warner RD. 2016; The structural basis of cooking loss in beef: Variations with temperature and ageing. Food Res Int. 89:739-748


Rhee KS, Myers CE, Waldron DF. 2003; Consumer sensory evaluation of plain and seasoned goat meat and beef products. Meat Sci. 65:785-789


Roldán M, Antequera T, Martín A, Mayoral AI, Ruiz J. 2013; Effect of different temperature–time combinations on physicochemical, microbiological, textural and structural features of sous-vide cooked lamb loins. Meat Sci. 93:572-578


Roldán M, Ruiz J, del Pulgar JS, Pérez-Palacios T, Antequera T. 2015; Volatile compound profile of sous-vide cooked lamb loins at different temperature–time combinations. Meat Sci. 100:52-57


Sun S, Rasmussen FD, Cavender GA, Sullivan GA. 2019; Texture, color and sensory evaluation of sous-vide cooked beef steaks processed using high pressure processing as method of microbial control. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 103:169-177


Supaphon P, Astruc T, Kerdpiboon S. 2020; Physical characteristics and their relationship with surface-physical properties of Thai local beef during sous-vide processing. Agric Nat Resour. 54:25-32


Supaphon P, Kerdpiboon S, Vénien A, Loison O, Sicard J, Rouel J, Astruc T. 2021; Structural changes in local Thai beef during sous-vide cooking. Meat Sci. 175; :108442


Uttaro B, Zawadski S, McLeod B. 2019; Efficacy of multi-stage sous-vide cooking on tenderness of low value beef muscles. Meat Sci. 149:40-46


Vaudagna SR, Sánchez G, Neira MS, Insani EM, Picallo AB, Gallinger MM, Lasta JA. 2002; Sous vide cooked beef muscles: Effects of low temperature–long time (LT–LT) treatments on their quality characteristics and storage stability. Int J Food Sci Technol. 37:425-441


Yahya NH, Zulkifli NS, Ramli SNA, Ismail I, Mokhtar WMFW. 2021; Effects of sous-vide cooking on the initial yield, peak force, and elastic modulus of cooked beef semitendinosus. J Agrobiotechnol. 12:83-91


Yamauchi K, Manabe N, Matsumoto Y, Takenoyama S, Yamauchi K. 2014; Increased collagen III in culled chicken meat after feeding dietary wood charcoal and vinegar contributes to palatability and tenderness. Anim Sci J. 85:468-480


Yang F, Lee CH, Jeon MY, Cho WY, Seo HG. 2021; The physicochemical and sensory properties of whey-fed pork loin after salting, dry aging, and sous vide cooking. J Chem. 2021; :6624269


Yang Y, Hua J, Deng Y, Jiang Y, Qian MC, Wang J, Li J, Zhang M, Dong C, Yuan H. 2020; Aroma dynamic characteristics during the process of variable-temperature final firing of congou black tea by electronic nose and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Food Res Int. 137; :109656


Yin Y, Pereira J, Zhou L, Lorenzo JM, Tian X, Zhang W. 2020; Insight into the effects of sous vide on cathepsin B and L activities, protein degradation and the ultrastructure of beef. Foods. 9; :1441


Zhu X, Kaur L, Staincliffe M, Boland M. 2018; Actinidin pretreatment and sous vide cooking of beef brisket: Effects on meat microstructure, texture and in vitro protein digestibility. Meat Sci. 145:256-265