A highly sensitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a monoclonal antibody specific to thermal stable-soluble protein of pork fat tissue for the detection of pork fat mixed in heat-processed beef meatballs
Received: Aug 12, 2023 ; Revised: Sep 08, 2023 ; Accepted: Sep 14, 2023
Published Online: Sep 21, 2023
Processed foods containing pork fat tissue to improve flavor and gain economic benefit may cause severe issues for Muslims, Jews, and vegetarians. This study aimed to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on a monoclonal antibody specific to thermal stable-soluble protein (TSSP) in pork fat tissue and apply it to detect pork fat tissue in heat-processed (autoclave, steam, roast, and fry) beef meatballs. To develop a sensitive iELISA, the optimal sample pre-cooking time, coating conditions, primary and secondary dilution time, and various buffer systems were tested. The change in the iELISA sensitivity with different 96-well microtiter microplates was confirmed. The detection limit of iELISA performed with an appropriate microplate was 0.015% (w/w) pork fat in raw and heat-treated beef. No cross-reactions to other meats or fats were shown. These results mean that the iELISA can be used as an analytical method to detect trace amounts of pork fat mixed in beef.