Characterization and comparative evaluation of milk protein variants from Pakistani dairy breeds
Received: Nov 13, 2019 ; Revised: Jan 05, 2020 ; Accepted: Jun 15, 2020
Published Online: Jun 26, 2020
The aim of study was to scrutinize the physicochemical and protein profile of milk obtained from local Pakistani breeds of milch animals such as Nilli-Ravi buffalo, Sahiwal cow, Kajli sheep, Beetal goat and Brela camel. Physicochemical analysis unveiled maximum number of total solids and protein found in sheep and minimum in camel. Buffalo milk contains the highest level of fat (7.45%) while camel milk contains minimum (1.94%). Ash was found maximum in buffalo (0.81%) and sheep (0.80%) while minimum in cow’s milk (0.71%). Casein and whey proteins were separated by subjecting milk to isoelectric pH and then analyzed through Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed heterogeneity among these species. Different fractions including αS1, αS2, κ-casein, β-casein and β-lactoglobulen (β-Lg) were identified and quantitatively compared in all milk samples. Additionally, this electrophoretic method after examining the number and strength of different protein bands (αS1, αS2, β-CN, α-LAC, BSA, β-Lg etc.), is helpful to understand the properties of milk for different processing purposes and could be successfully applied in dairy industry. Results revealed that camel milk is best suitable for producing allergen free milk protein products. Furthermore, based on the variability of milk proteins, it is suggested to clarify the phylogenetic relationships between different cattle breeds and to gather the necessary data to preserve the genetic fund and biodiversity of the local breeds. Thus, the study of milk protein from different breed and species has a wide range of scope in producing diverse protein based dairy products like cheese.