Physical and biochemical mechanisms associated with beef carcass vascular rinsing effects on meat quality: a review
Received: Mar 17, 2022 ; Revised: Apr 11, 2022 ; Accepted: Apr 12, 2022
Published Online: Apr 20, 2022
Carcass vascular rinsing and chilling involves infusing a chilled isotonic solution (98.5% water and a blend of dextrose, maltose, and sodium phosphates) into the vasculature immediately upon exsanguination. Primary purposes of the carcass vascular rinsing are to (1) effectively remove residual blood from the carcass; (2) lower internal temperature rapidly due to the large internal surface of the vascular system and the reduced distance between the muscle and the chilling medium; and (3) optimize pH decline by effective delivery of glycolytic substrates in the RC solution. Previous studies have revealed that the beef carcass vascular rinsing early postmortem positively affects meat quality, product shelf-life, and food safety. Thus, the objective of this review is to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the physical and biochemical mechanisms associated with beef carcass vascular rinsing, focusing on the relationship between quality attributes (CIE L*a*b*, chemical states of myoglobin, oxygen consumption and sarcomere length) and muscle metabolic response to various substrate solutions (Rinse & Chill®, fructose, sodium phosphate, and dipotassium phosphate) that stimulate or inhibit the rate of glycolysis early postmortem. In addition, this review discusses the absence of metabolite residues (phosphorus, sodium, and glucose) related to the application of the chilled isotonic solution.