Combined Effects of Pressure cooking and Enzyme Treatment to Enhance The Digestibility and Physicochemical Properties of Spreadable Liver Sausage

Su-Kyung Ku1, Jake Kim1, Se-Myung Kim1, Hae In Yong1, Bum-Geun Kim Kim1, Yun-Sang Choi1,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Research Group of Food Processing, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju 55365, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: Yun-Sang Choi, E-mail:

© Copyright 2022 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Jan 24, 2022 ; Revised: Mar 24, 2022 ; Accepted: Mar 30, 2022

Published Online: Apr 04, 2022


This study aimed to determine the effect of enzymes, guar gum, and pressure processing on the digestibility and physicochemical properties of age-friendly liver sausages. Liver sausages were manufactured by adding proteolytic enzyme (Bromelain) and guar gum, and pressure-cooking (0.06 MPa), with the following treatments: Control, without proteolytic enzyme; T1, proteolytic enzyme; T2, proteolytic enzymes and guar gum; T3, pressure-cooking; T4, proteolytic enzyme and pressure-cooking; T5, proteolytic enzymes, guar gum, and pressure-cooking. The pH was high in the enzyme- and pressure-processed groups. The pressure-processed groups had lower apparent viscosity than other cooking groups, and it decreased during enzyme treatment. Hardness was lower in the enzyme- and pressure-processed groups than in the control group, and the enzyme and pressure composite treatment (T4) led to the lowest hardness. Digestibility was the highest in T4 at 82.58%, and there was no significant difference with that in T5. The general cooking group with enzyme and guar gum also showed higher digestibility than the control group, at 77.50%. As per the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the enzyme- and pressure-treated groups (T4, T5) were degraded more into low-molecular-weight peptides (≤37 kDa) than the control and other treatment groups. Viscoelasticity measurements showed similar trends for viscous and elastic moduli. Similarly, combined pressure processing and enzymatic treatment decreased viscoelasticity, while guar gum increased elasticity but decreased viscosity. Therefore, the tenderized physical properties and improved digestibility by enzyme and pressurization treatment could be used to produce age-friendly spreadable liver sausages.

Keywords: liver sausage; enzyme; pressure; digestibility; hardness

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