Combined Effects of Pressure cooking and Enzyme Treatment to Enhance The Digestibility and Physicochemical Properties of Spreadable Liver Sausage
Received: Jan 24, 2022 ; Revised: Mar 24, 2022 ; Accepted: Mar 30, 2022
Published Online: Apr 04, 2022
This study aimed to determine the effect of enzymes, guar gum, and pressure processing on the digestibility and physicochemical properties of age-friendly liver sausages. Liver sausages were manufactured by adding proteolytic enzyme (Bromelain) and guar gum, and pressure-cooking (0.06 MPa), with the following treatments: Control, without proteolytic enzyme; T1, proteolytic enzyme; T2, proteolytic enzymes and guar gum; T3, pressure-cooking; T4, proteolytic enzyme and pressure-cooking; T5, proteolytic enzymes, guar gum, and pressure-cooking. The pH was high in the enzyme- and pressure-processed groups. The pressure-processed groups had lower apparent viscosity than other cooking groups, and it decreased during enzyme treatment. Hardness was lower in the enzyme- and pressure-processed groups than in the control group, and the enzyme and pressure composite treatment (T4) led to the lowest hardness. Digestibility was the highest in T4 at 82.58%, and there was no significant difference with that in T5. The general cooking group with enzyme and guar gum also showed higher digestibility than the control group, at 77.50%. As per the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the enzyme- and pressure-treated groups (T4, T5) were degraded more into low-molecular-weight peptides (≤37 kDa) than the control and other treatment groups. Viscoelasticity measurements showed similar trends for viscous and elastic moduli. Similarly, combined pressure processing and enzymatic treatment decreased viscoelasticity, while guar gum increased elasticity but decreased viscosity. Therefore, the tenderized physical properties and improved digestibility by enzyme and pressurization treatment could be used to produce age-friendly spreadable liver sausages.