Effects of Gochujang (Korean Red Pepper Paste) Marinade on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Formation in Charcoal-grilled Pork Belly
Received: Dec 17, 2020 ; Revised: Mar 08, 2021 ; Accepted: Mar 15, 2021
Published Online: Mar 17, 2021
Charcoal-grilling is a popular cooking method but causes the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can be harmful to human health. Gochujang marinade is commonly used for flavoring meats during charcoal-grilling. However, the effects of this marinade on PAHs formation during charcoal-grilling are unclear. Here, we evaluated the effects of Gochujang marinade on the formation of 16 PAHs and inhibition rate of major PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) in charcoal-grilled pork belly. Pork belly without marinade (PBW) and marinated with Gochujang (PBG) were stored for 10 days at 9°C under vacuum conditions and then charcoal-grilled to different doneness (internal temperatures of 71°C and 81°C). Among 16 PAHs evaluated in this study, 14 PAHs were detected in charcoal-grilled pork belly, regardless of doneness. PAH formation in charcoal-grilled pork belly was higher at an internal temperature of 81°C than at 71°C (p < 0.05). Initially, PBG showed reduced total PAH formation and lower percentages of three major PAHs compared with PBW. Storage increased the inhibitory effects of PBG on the 16 PAHs, and the maximum reduction in total 16PAHs (63.06%) was observed with moderate cooking (71°C) on day 10 (p < 0.05). Moreover, marinade and doneness showed a high interaction with regard to PAH contents in charcoal-grilled pork belly (p < 0.05-p < 0.0001). Therefore, our findings suggested that marinating pork belly with Gochujang and grilling at 71°C could reduce the formation of 16 PAHs in charcoal-grilled pork belly.