Effects of Gochujang (Korean Red Pepper Paste) Marinade on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Formation in Charcoal-grilled Pork Belly

Hye-Jin Kim1, Jinwoo Cho1, Dongwook Kim1, Tae Sun Park2, Sang Keun Jin3, Sun Jin Hur4, Sung Ki Lee1, Aera Jang1,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Applied Animal Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.
2Woojin Food Co. Ltd., Busan 46757, Korea.
3Department of Animal Science Resources Technology, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju 52725, Korea.
4Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: Aera Jang, Department of Applied Animal Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea. E-mail:

© Copyright 2021 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Dec 17, 2020 ; Revised: Mar 08, 2021 ; Accepted: Mar 15, 2021

Published Online: Mar 17, 2021


Charcoal-grilling is a popular cooking method but causes the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can be harmful to human health. Gochujang marinade is commonly used for flavoring meats during charcoal-grilling. However, the effects of this marinade on PAHs formation during charcoal-grilling are unclear. Here, we evaluated the effects of Gochujang marinade on the formation of 16 PAHs and inhibition rate of major PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) in charcoal-grilled pork belly. Pork belly without marinade (PBW) and marinated with Gochujang (PBG) were stored for 10 days at 9°C under vacuum conditions and then charcoal-grilled to different doneness (internal temperatures of 71°C and 81°C). Among 16 PAHs evaluated in this study, 14 PAHs were detected in charcoal-grilled pork belly, regardless of doneness. PAH formation in charcoal-grilled pork belly was higher at an internal temperature of 81°C than at 71°C (p < 0.05). Initially, PBG showed reduced total PAH formation and lower percentages of three major PAHs compared with PBW. Storage increased the inhibitory effects of PBG on the 16 PAHs, and the maximum reduction in total 16PAHs (63.06%) was observed with moderate cooking (71°C) on day 10 (p < 0.05). Moreover, marinade and doneness showed a high interaction with regard to PAH contents in charcoal-grilled pork belly (p < 0.05-p < 0.0001). Therefore, our findings suggested that marinating pork belly with Gochujang and grilling at 71°C could reduce the formation of 16 PAHs in charcoal-grilled pork belly.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; barbecue; natural antioxidant; storage; doneness

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