Formulating Reduced-Fat Sausages with Quinoa or Teff Flours: Effects on Emulsion Characteristics and Product Quality

Burcu Öztürk Kerimoğlu1,*, Hülya Kavuşan1, Damla Tabak1, Meltem Serdaroğlu1
Author Information & Copyright
1Ege University, Izmır 35100, Turkey.
*Corresponding Author: Burcu Öztürk Kerimoğlu, Ege University, Izmır 35100, Turkey. Phone: +90 232 311 30 26. Fax: +90 232 311 48 31. E-mail:

© Copyright 2020 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: May 09, 2020 ; Revised: Jun 12, 2020 ; Accepted: Jun 17, 2020

Published Online: Jun 26, 2020


This study dealt with the use of quinoa flour (QF) or teff flour (TF) as partial beef fat replacers in the formulation of emulsion-type sausages. A control (C) group was manufactured with 20% beef fat, while the other three groups were formulated with 10% beef fat plus 5% QF (Q), 5% TF (T), and 2.5% QF + 2.5% TF (QT).  Water-holding capacity of the emulsions was higher in Q (81.81%), T (82.20%), and QT (84.10%) samples than in C (64.83%) samples. Total expressible fluid and fat (TEF and EFAT) were the lowest in Q and T samples, indicating the highest emulsion stability of those groups. Incorporation of QF and TF into formulations increased moisture and carbohydrate contents while decreased fat and energy values. Besides, the use of QF was effective to increase protein and dietary fiber contents. T samples had lower luminosity (L*) and higher yellowness (b*) than C sausages, whilst Q sausages did not result in significant color changes. Higher cook yield values were recorded in Q (97.96%), T (98.21%), and QT (98.15%) samples compared with C (96.44%) samples. Inclusion of QF and TF to formulation led to lower hardness and gumminess, while utilization of TF was also effective to decrease chewiness. Consequently, healthier emulsified sausages were obtained by the inclusion of quinoa or teff flours that could decrease the fat content more than 50% without sacrificing overall quality, bringing advantages by quinoa over teff for increasing nutritional value and leading minimal modifications on color and texture.

Keywords: emulsified sausage; reduced-fat meat products; quinoa; teff; fiber source ingredients

Journal Title Change

We announce that the title of our journal and related information were changed as below from January, 2019.


Before (~2018.12)

After (2019.01~)

Journal Title

Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources

Food Science of Animal Resources

Journal Abbreviation

Korean J. Food Sci. An.

Food Sci. Anim. Resour.







Journal Homepage


JCR Citation Indexing



I don't want to open this window for a day.