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Effect of the Calpain System on Volatile Flavor Compounds in the Beef Longissimus lumborum Muscle
Korean J. Food Sci. An. 2018;38:515-529
Published online June 30, 2018;
© 2018 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources

Jieun Yang1,†, Dashmaa Dashdorj1,2,†, and Inho Hwang1,*

1Department of Animal Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 28644, Korea
2Department of Livestock Production & Monitoring and Inspection, Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Mongolia
Correspondence to: Inho Hwang
Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 28644, Korea
Tel: +82-63-270-2605
Fax: +82-63-270-2605
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received March 13, 2018; Revised April 27, 2018; Accepted April 30, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of calpain system on the formation of volatile flavor compounds in Hanwoo beef. In the first experiment (exp.1), Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle samples were injected with solutions containing 50 mM CaCl2 or 50 mM ZnCl2 and 154 mM NaCl respectively, and aged for 7 d at 4℃. In the second experiment (exp.2), the ground LL muscle was incubated with the aforementioned solutions containing cathepsin inhibitor. The injection with CaCl2 solution greatly elevated the calpain activity and concomitantly, significantly decreased the Warner-Bratzler shear force (p<0.05). The pH, meat color and cooking loss did not differ (p>0.05) between the treatment groups. A total of 51 volatile compounds were identified using the solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Results on volatile analyses from the both experiments showed that the injection with calcium ions led to significant increase (p<0.05) concentrations of pyrazines and sulfuric compounds. These results coincide with a higher rate of protein degradation due to the CaCl2 injection as compared to the control group. Significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of lipid oxidation derived-aldehydes were found in the samples with ZnCl2. The exp.1 showed that cathepsin inhibitors had no effect on the formation of volatile flavor components after 7 d of aging. These results imply that the proteolytic activity of the calpain system is associated with generation of volatile compounds of chiller-aged beef, while the role of cathepsins is likely very limited.
Keywords : beef, calpain system, calcium ions, protein degradation, volatiles

June 2018, 38 (3)