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Investigation of the Usability of Retrograded Flour in Meatball Production as A Structure Enhancer
Korean J. Food Sci. An. 2018;38:78-87
Published online February 28, 2018
© 2018 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources

Elif Aykin Dinçer*, Özlem Kiliç Büyükkurt, Cihadiye Candal, Büşra Fatma Bilgiç, and Mustafa Erbaş

Department of Food Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Akdeniz University, 07058 Antalya, Turkey
Correspondence to: Elif AYKIN DİNÇER
Akdeniz University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, 07058 Antalya, Turkey
Tel: +90-242-310-43-45
Received May 31, 2017; Revised December 21, 2017; Accepted December 21, 2017.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This study aimed to research the possibilities of using retrograded flour produced in the laboratory environment in meatballs and the characteristics of these meatballs. In the use of retrograded flour to produce meatballs, it was ensured that the meatball properties, with respect to chemical, physical and sensorial aspects, were comparable to those of meatballs produced with bread (traditional) and rusk flour (commercial). The cooking loss of meatballs produced with using retrograded flour was similar to that of commercial meatballs. Doses of retrograded flour from 5% to 20% led to a significant decrease in cooking loss, from 21.95% to 6.19%, and in the diameter of meatballs, from 18.60% to 12.74%, but to an increase in the thickness of meatballs, from 28.82% to 41.39% compared to the control. The increase of a* and b* values was shown in that the meatballs were browned on cooking with increasing retrograded flour doses because of non-enzymatic reactions. The springiness of the traditional meatballs was significantly higher than that of the other meatballs. This might have been due to the bread crumbs having a naturally springy structure. Moreover, the addition of retrograded flour in the meatballs significantly (p<0.05) affected the hardness, springiness and cohesiveness of the meatballs with respect to textural properties. Accordingly, it is considered that the use of 10% retrograded flour is ideal to improve the sensorial values of meatballs and the properties of their structure.
Keywords : flour source, modified meatball, stale bread, texture modifier

February 2018, 38 (1)