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Detection of Korean Native Honey and European Honey by Using Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction and Immunochromatographic Assay
Korean J. Food Sci. An. 2017;37:599-605
Published online August 31, 2017
© 2017 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources

Chang-Kyu Kim, Deug-Chan Lee1, and Suk-Ho Choi*

Division of Biotechnology, Sangji University, Wonju 26339, Korea
1Department of Biomedical Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
Correspondence to: Suk-Ho Choi
Division of Biotechnology, Sangji University, Wonju 26339, Korea
Tel: +82-33-730-0543 Fax: +82-33-730-0503 E-mail:
Received May 24, 2017; Revised July 31, 2017; Accepted August 4, 2017.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Korean native honey (KNH) is much more expensive than European honey (EH) in Korea, because KNH is a favored honey which is produced less than EH. Food fraud of KNH has drawn attention of the government office concerned, which is in need of a method to differentiate between KNH and EH which are produced by the Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana and the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, respectively. A method to discriminate KNH and EH was established by using duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in this study. Immunochromatographic assay (IC) was examined to analyze the duplex PCR product. The DNA sequences of primers for the duplex PCR were determined by comparing cytochrome C oxidase genes of the two honey bee species. Chelex resin method was more efficient in extracting genomic DNA from honey than the other two procedures of commercial kits. The duplex PCR amplifying DNA of 133 bp were more sensitive than that amplifying DNA of 206 bp in detecting EH in the honey mixture of KNH and EH. Agarose gel electrophoresis and IC detected the DNA of 133 bp at the ratios of down to 1% and 5% EH in the honey mixture, respectively and also revealed that several KNH products distributed by internet shopping sites were actually EH. In conclusion, the duplex PCR with subsequent IC could also discriminate between KNH and EH and save time and labor.
Keywords : Korean native honey, European honey, Polymerase chain reaction, Immunochromatographic assay

August 2017, 37 (4)